Objective: To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of frozen
section (FS) compared with final pathology and to determine whether they should
be obligatory in every patient with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH).
Methods: We retrospectively assessed the medical records of 192 patients whose
endometrial biopsy results were endometrial hyperplasia and underwent
hysterectomy at our center. Results: Twenty-two (11.4%) of the 192 patients in
our study had concurrent endometrial carcinoma (EC). Of these, 21 (95.5%) were
EC and 1 (4.5%) was non-endome- trioid. Of the 140 patients with AEH, 20
(14.3%) had concurrent EC. Overall, 157 patients had FS. Two (1%) patients’ EC
was higher than grade 1B and needed lymphadenectomy. The positive and negative
predictive value, specifity and sensitivity of FS were found to be 77.8%,
95.7%, 97% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients who have AEH without
high-risk comorbidities do not have to be referred to oncology centers and can
undergo hysterectomy in community hospitals without FS.
Viscous aqueous solutions of
chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were blended to enhance miscibility and
avoid polymer phase separation. The mixtures were drop-casted and air dried to
yield composite film materials that were characterized by equilibrium water
uptake, physical stability in aqueous solution, and thermal stability.
Chitosan/PVA blends have greater thermal stability, unique morphology, and
reduced solubility in acidic solution, thus extending the useful pH range for
chitosan as a sorbent material. The uptake properties of the films was
investigated using methylene blue (MB) and a p-nitrophenol (PNP) dyes, where it
was found that each single component polymer has greater uptake toward MB than
PNP. A direct relationship between film composition (chitosan:PVA) with
solution pH and the uptake of MB was observed. The results are in agreement
with electrostatic interactions and contributions due to the hydrophobic effect
for such composite materials.