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OALib Journal期刊

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Submergence Tolerance in Irrigated and Rainfed Lowland Rice Varieties: Agro-Morphological Basis for Rice Genetic Improvement in Southern Benin  [PDF]
Magloire Oteyami, Espérance Codjia, Clement Agbangla, Leonard Ahoton, Carline Santos, David Montcho, Antoine Missihoun
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104304
Abstract:
Objective: The study was carried out, on the rice perimeter of Southern Benin, to evaluate the response of irrigated and lowland rice varieties to the complete and partial submergence using agro-morphological traits. Method: Thus, 15 rice varieties were submerged in the field during 60 days according to split plot experimental design with two factors and three replications. Agro-morphological parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, the distance of internodes and the number of internodes were measured respectively at 13 days and 45 days. After harvest, some traits such as length, width and thickness of grains, panicle length, number of primary and secondary branches, the average number of empty grains and full grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight were recorded. Results: Very highly significant (P ≤ 0.0001) differences were identified between agro morphological parameters according to the type of submergence while the factor type of immersion has significant influence on the number of internodes at 45 days after transplanting (P ≤ 0.01). The submergence was not significant effect on tillering and length of internodes. Conclusion: The plant height, the weight of thousand grains and the average number of empty grains per panicle constitute key aspects and have been essential for evaluating tolerance to submergence in Benin.
Antioxidants from Syrah Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah). Extraction Process through Optimization by Response Surface Methodology  [PDF]
Youssef El Hajj, Espérance Debs, Catherine Nguyen, Richard G. Maroun, Nicolas Louka
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.412155
Abstract:

In this work, optimization of phenolic compounds (PC) and monomeric anthocyanins (MA) extraction from Syrah (Sy) wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah) using response surface methodology was conducted. The comparisons between two extraction mixtures, Acetone/Water (A/W) as well as Methanol/Water (M/W) and the effects of three critical variables, Extraction Time (between 8 and 88 h), Extraction Temperature (between 1℃ and 35) and Solvent Content (between 63% and 97%), on Phenolic Compounds Yield (PCY), Monomeric Anthocyanins Yield (MAY) and the DPPH Free Radical Inhibition Potential (DFRIP) were studied. The highest PCY was obtained in 63% A/W solvent content after 88 h incubation at 35. The highest MAY was acquired in 97% M/W solvent content after 8 h incubation at 17. The highest DFRIP of the extract was attained using 97% A/W solvent content after 16 h incubation at 35. The low cost of this process, on economic and environmental levels, could lead to interesting applications on an industrial scale. It could be used to obtain bioactive phytochemicals from direct material or byproducts for either therapeutic or nutritional purposes.

Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids
Sylvain L'Espérance, Magdalena Bachvarova, Bernard Tetu, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Dimcho Bachvarov
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-99
Abstract: Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism), signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes), cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses.Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular growth conditions that are known to alter gene expression (including cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization), could substantially contribute in reducing the initial effectiveness of CT drugs in OC spheroids. Results described in this study underscore the potential of the microarray technology for unraveling the complex mechanisms of CT drugs actions in OC spheroids and early cellular response to treatment.Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fourth commonest cause of cancer related death in women [1]. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with an over
Hospital-Acquired Anaemia Secondary to Phlebotomy in Elderly Patients  [PDF]
Divya Tiwari, Caroline Rance
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.32012
Abstract:


Introduction: Anaemia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients, yet unnecessary blood tests from inpatients may actually induce a “hospital acquired anaemia” (HAA). This study examines the incidence of phlebotomy-induced anaemia during a hospital admission. Methods: Patients admitted to the Royal Bournemouth Hospital between 2009 and 2011 for a period of more than two weeks were identified. Those with normal haemoglobins on admission (Hb > 130 g/dL in men; Hb > 120 g/dL in women) were selected to be included in the study. One hundred and sixty two patients were randomly selected from this group and their admission and discharge haemoglobin was recorded, and the change in Hb was calculated. The number of blood tests taken during admission was calculated from each patient from which volume of blood lost was determined. Age, sex and co-morbidities, bleeding complications and blood transfusions were noted. T-test for unequal variance was used for analysis. Results: Of the 162 patients, 69 (42.5%) developed a HAA (defined as haemoglobin drop from normal to <110 g/dL). The average number of blood tests taken in the anaemia group was 37, compared to only 23 in the “no-anaemia” group. i.e. 132 mls in the anaemia group vs. only 80.2 mls in no-anaemia group. Further analysis of the anaemia group revealed that 40 patients developed a “mild anaemia” (defined as drop in Hb from normal to <110 g/dL) and 29 developed a moderate/severe anaemia (drop from a normal Hb at admission to <100 g/dL). Significantly higher volume of blood was withdrawn from this moderate/severe anaemia group compared to those that developed a mild anaemia 177.9 mls vs. 121.34 mls (p-Value 0.007, F = 0.001) 95% CI 2.08 to 9.22. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients admitted for inpatient stays of more than two weeks may be at high risk of HAA as a consequence of diagnostic blood loss. This anaemia in turn may have detrimental consequences, especially in patients with pre-existing cardio-respiratory disease. There needs to be increased awareness of the risk posed to patients as a result of diagnostic phlebotomy and further studies are required to study its impact on LOS, morbidity and mortality outcomes.

Cerebral Abcess and Intracranial Empyemas in Children (Francais)
Espérance Broalet, Dominique N’dri Oka, Serge Eholie, Eb Guillao-Lasme, Guy; Varlet, Vincent Bazeze
African Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Abces et Empyemes Intracraniens chez l\'Enfant Résumé Introduction Les abcès et empyèmes sont des lésions intracraniennes fréquentes chez l\'enfant. Objectif Les auteurs rapportent et étudient les aspects cliniques, paracliniques et thérapeutiques de ces suppurations intracraniennes observées à Abidjan. Méthode Une étude rétrospective est effectuée dans le service de neurochirurgie du CHU de Yopougon sur une période de 5 ans (décembre 1993 à décembre 1998). Cette étude a porté sur 34 observations cliniques dont l\'age variait entre 7 mois et 15 ans. Résultats Les empyèmes sous-duraux représentaient 44,1 %, les abcès 20,5 % et les deux lésions étaient associées dans 17,6 % des cas. Les germes isolés chez 12 patients étaient : Cocci Gram positif (3 cas), Enterobactéries (2 cas), Streptocoque (2 cas), Hémophilus (2 cas) flore mixte aéroanaérobie (1 cas) et une association pseudomonas acinétobacter (1 cas). La principale porte d\'entrée était une infection ORL. L\'évolution a été favorable chez 32 patients avec des séquelles retrouvées dans 8 cas. Nous avons enregistré deux (2) cas de décès dont l\'un à l\'arrivée et l\'autre un jour apès l\'intervention, imputables à un engagement cérébral consécutif à l\'hypertension intracranienne. Il n\'y a pas eu de récidive de la suppuration. Conclusion Les empyèmes sous-duraux sont les plus fréquentes de ces suppurations intracraniennes chez l\'enfant. A travers cette étude, les auteurs argumentent en faveur de l\'utilisation de la tréphine ou du trou de trépan pour évacuer ces collections suppurées intracraniennes. Ils insistent sur la prophylaxie qui passe par le traitement des infections ORL, dentaires, méningées et le parage correct des plaies cranio-encéphaliques. Background Abcess and empyemas are frequent intracranial lesions in children. Objective The s report the clinical, radiological bacteriological and therapeutical aspects of these intracranial suppurations observed in Abidjan. Methods A retrospective analysis has been conducted in the neurosurgical department of university teaching hospital of Yopougon over a 5 years period (December\' 93 to december\' 98). The study was based on 34 clinical observations on patients whom age ranges between 7 months and 15 years. Results The s report 34 cases of abscesses and intracranial empyemas of the cases in children. Subdural empyemas represented 44,1 % of the cases, abcess 20,5 % and the two lesions were associated in 17,6 %. Bacteriological agents isolated on 12 patients were gram positif cocci (3 cases) heamophilus (2 cases) flora mixed (2 cases) and a combination of pseudomonas acinetobacter (1 case). The predisposing factors were ENT diseases. Two patients died, the first day soon after admission, and the second one day after surgery. And in both cases because of brain herniation secondary to severe raised intracranial pressure. We observed no recurrence of pus collection. Neurological sequelae was observed in 8 cases. Conclusion Intracranial subdural
De la caractérisation matricielle des drapeaux complets d'extensions riemanniennes aux feuilletages riemanniens transversalement diagonaux sur une variété compacte connexe
Cyrille Dadi,Adolphe Codjia
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper we characterise with the matrix the complete flag of riemannian extension (see d\'efinition) on a riemannian compact manifold whose metric is bundlelike for any foliation F_{s} of this flag. This study show us that a foliation of a complete flag of riemannian extension on a riemannian compact manifold whose metric is bundlelike for any foliation of this flag is a transversely diagonal riemannian foliation (see d\'efinition).
La proliferación de discursos en los estudios de género
Rance,Susanna;
Estudios de filosof?-a pr??ctica e historia de las ideas , 2007,
Abstract: as teacher of gender studies, the author observed a gap between the flourishing of sexual and gender diversity, and the persistence in academic courses of binary, biologically-based models. she graphically mapped different approaches including masculinities, the sociology of sex/gender, and internet studies. the proliferation of discourses proposed by foucault and butler has the potential to subvert the hegemony claimed by any current -such as the history of feminism or women in development- as obligatory entry-point to this area of study. from a postmodern perspective, the method opens up the field from women's studies to new themes and subjects of gender studies.
Helping patients attain and maintain asthma control: reviewing the role of the nurse practitioner
Rance KS
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S22966
Abstract: g patients attain and maintain asthma control: reviewing the role of the nurse practitioner Review (3566) Total Article Views Authors: Rance KS Published Date August 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 299 - 309 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S22966 Karen S Rance Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Associates, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Nurse practitioners (NPs) have a unique opportunity as frontline caregivers and patient educators to recognize, assess, and effectively treat the widespread problem of uncontrolled asthma. This review provides a perspective on the role of the NP in implementing the revised National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Guidelines put forth by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, thereby helping patients achieve and maintain asthma control. A literature search of PubMed was performed using the terms asthma, nurse practitioner, asthma control, burden, impact, morbidity, mortality, productivity, quality of life, uncontrolled asthma, NAEPP guidelines, assessment, pharmacotherapy, safety. Despite the increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life attributable to uncontrolled asthma, the 2007 NAEPP asthma guidelines are greatly underused. NPs have an opportunity to identify patients at risk and provide enhanced care and education for asthma control. Often, NPs can prescribe medication for and manage these patients, but it is necessary to be able to discern which patients require referral to a specialist.
Helping patients attain and maintain asthma control: reviewing the role of the nurse practitioner
Rance KS
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 2011,
Abstract: Karen S RanceAllergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Associates, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Nurse practitioners (NPs) have a unique opportunity as frontline caregivers and patient educators to recognize, assess, and effectively treat the widespread problem of uncontrolled asthma. This review provides a perspective on the role of the NP in implementing the revised National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Guidelines put forth by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, thereby helping patients achieve and maintain asthma control. A literature search of PubMed was performed using the terms asthma, nurse practitioner, asthma control, burden, impact, morbidity, mortality, productivity, quality of life, uncontrolled asthma, NAEPP guidelines, assessment, pharmacotherapy, safety. Despite the increased morbidity and mortality and impaired quality of life attributable to uncontrolled asthma, the 2007 NAEPP asthma guidelines are greatly underused. NPs have an opportunity to identify patients at risk and provide enhanced care and education for asthma control. Often, NPs can prescribe medication for and manage these patients, but it is necessary to be able to discern which patients require referral to a specialist.Keywords: asthma control, asthma medications, education, NAEPP guidelines, nurse practitioner, referral
Effect of Dental Status on Changes in Mastication in Patients with Obesity following Bariatric Surgery
Anne Espérance Godlewski, Jean Luc Veyrune, Emmanuel Nicolas, Cécile A. Ciangura, Catherine C. Chaussain, Sébastien Czernichow, Arnaud Basdevant, Martine Hennequin
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022324
Abstract: Background Patients scheduled for bariatric surgery (BS) are encouraged to chew slowly in order to optimise the digestion process. The influence of dental status on patients' ability to comply with advice on chewing behaviour is poorly documented. This study aims to compare modifications of chewing function before and after BS in three groups of obese patients differing in dental status. Method and Findings A cohort of 46 obese women provided three groups: FD group: fully dentate (7–10 functional dental units [FU]); PD group: partially dentate (4–6 FU) without partial dentures; DW group: partial and complete denture wearers. Chewing time (CT), number of chewing cycles (CC), and chewing frequency (CF) were measured before and after surgery during mastication of standardised samples of raw carrot, peanuts, banana, apple and jelly. The median particle-size distribution (D50) of the pre-swallowed bolus was also evaluated for peanut and carrot. Before surgery, the PD and DW groups exhibited greater mean CCs and CTs than the FD group (SNK p<0.05) and produced a bolus with higher granulometry (SNK, p<0.05) than the FD group. After surgery, CT and CC increased for all groups and for all foods, but not statistically significant for jelly. The resulting changes in bolus granulometry observed depended on both food and dental status. The granulometry of carrot bolus remained as fine or as coarse in FD and DW groups respectively as it was before surgery while it was significantly decreased in the PD group (Student's test, p<0.001). Conclusions After bariatric surgery, all the obese patients, regardless of dental status modified their chewing kinematics. The effects of this chewing behaviour on bolus granulometry depended on dental status and type of food. Further studies are needed to understand better the impact of dental status on feeding behaviour and nutrition in patients with obesity.
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