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OALib Journal期刊

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Mercury versus Oscillometric Device in Measuring Blood Pressure in Elderly: Which Is Authentic?  [PDF]
Vathulan Sujanitha, Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Mahesan Guruparan, Thavakularatnam Inthuja
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104353
Abstract:
Aim: To compare the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both arms in elderly patients by mercury sphygmomanometer and oscillometric recorders adopting standard practice of measuring blood pressure. Materials and methods: It is a cross sectional study done in 204 elderly patients aged more than 60 years over a period of two months at teaching hospital, Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Blood pressure was measured in both arms by both devices adopting the standard practice of blood pressure measurements. Results: The mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) by oscillometric recorder on both right and left arm was 4.18mmHg and 3.66 mmHg higher than mercury sphygmomanometer readings. The mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) by oscillometric recorder on both right arm and left arm was 1.67 and 1.64 mmHg lower than mercury sphygmomanometer readings. There wasn’t any significant difference in inter arm blood pressure measurement. The study group consisted of 54.3% males and 45.7% of females. The mean age of the study group was 69.46 years. Conclusion: Though there is no much difference observed in the gross values in reading the blood pressure by both oscillometric recorders and mercury sphygmomanometers, there is statistically significant discrepancy in blood pressure readings particularly in the elderly population which needs to be studied further in detail.
Classification with binary gene expressions  [PDF]
Salih Tuna, Mahesan Niranjan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.26056
Abstract: Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how properties of binary spaces can be useful in making inferences from microarray data. In particular, we use the Tanimoto similarity metric for binary vectors, which has been used effectively in the Chemoinformatics literature for retrieving chemical compounds with certain functional properties. This measure, when incorporated in a kernel framework, helps recover any information lost by quantization. By implementing a spectral clustering framework, we further show that a second reason for high performance from the Tanimoto metric can be traced back to a hitherto unnoticed systematic variability in array data: Probe level uncertainties are systematically lower for arrays with large numbers of expressed genes. While we offer no molecular level explanation for this systematic variability, that it could be exploited in a suitable similarity metric is a useful observation in itself. We further show preliminary results that working with binary data considerably reduces variability in the results across choice of algorithms in the preprocessing stages of microarray analysis.
The Role of Regulated mRNA Stability in Establishing Bicoid Morphogen Gradient in Drosophila Embryonic Development
Wei Liu, Mahesan Niranjan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024896
Abstract: The Bicoid morphogen is amongst the earliest triggers of differential spatial pattern of gene expression and subsequent cell fate determination in the embryonic development of Drosophila. This maternally deposited morphogen is thought to diffuse in the embryo, establishing a concentration gradient which is sensed by downstream genes. In most model based analyses of this process, the translation of the bicoid mRNA is thought to take place at a fixed rate from the anterior pole of the embryo and a supply of the resulting protein at a constant rate is assumed. Is this process of morphogen generation a passive one as assumed in the modelling literature so far, or would available data support an alternate hypothesis that the stability of the mRNA is regulated by active processes? We introduce a model in which the stability of the maternal mRNA is regulated by being held constant for a length of time, followed by rapid degradation. With this more realistic model of the source, we have analysed three computational models of spatial morphogen propagation along the anterior-posterior axis: (a) passive diffusion modelled as a deterministic differential equation, (b) diffusion enhanced by a cytoplasmic flow term; and (c) diffusion modelled by stochastic simulation of the corresponding chemical reactions. Parameter estimation on these models by matching to publicly available data on spatio-temporal Bicoid profiles suggests strong support for regulated stability over either a constant supply rate or one where the maternal mRNA is permitted to degrade in a passive manner.
Role of Data Mining in CRM
R. Uma Maheswari,S. Saravana Mahesan
International Journal of Engineering Research , 2014,
Abstract: Data mining allows extracting valuable information from the historical data and predicting outcomes of future situations. CRM considers the customer as the centre point, which values the customers of the organization. This article explores the various data mining techniques and its impact on CRM to redefine business processes and strategies.
Fragility Fractures in Chronic Kidney Disease: Assessment and Pharmacologic Management
Mahesan Anpalahan,Sudharsan Venkatesan,Aksharaa Anpalahan
Advances in Nephrology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/727135
Abstract: Fractures are common in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Both CKD and osteoporosis often coexist as they both are strongly age associated. However, the management of fragility fractures in CKD poses many dilemmas. These include diagnosing the aetiology of fractures and choosing appropriate treatment. This paper reviews the current evidence for the assessment and pharmacologic management of fragility fractures in CKD. 1. Introduction The burden of fracture has been shown to be high in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies have consistently shown that end stage kidney disease (ESKD) and dialysis are risk factors for low trauma fracture independent of age [1]. More recent studies have demonstrated that age adjusted prevalence of fracture is high even in early stages of CKD, including in those with age associated renal impairment [2]. Although the exact mechanisms responsible for the increased fracture risk in CKD have not been fully elucidated, it is not entirely unexpected as disorders of bone remodeling are observed as early as when eGFR is <60?ml/min/1.73?m2 [3]. However, the management of this common problem remains a challenge for many reasons. The diagnosis of the aetiopathology of fractures in CKD is not straightforward as, unlike in the general population, the fractures in CKD can be due to a heterogeneous group of bone disorders besides osteoporosis. Furthermore, the efficacy and safety of current osteoporosis therapies remain speculative in CKD. 2. Diagnosis of Osteoporosis and Fracture Risk Assessment The current methods of diagnosing osteoporosis or predicting fractures either by the presence of a low trauma fracture or on the basis of bone mineral density (BMD) criteria (a T score of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the young adult mean BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) [4] have not been validated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although cross-sectional studies show that both dialysis and predialysis patients [5, 6] with fractures have a lower BMD compared with those without, fracture prediction by BMD has not been validated prospectively in CKD. The biochemical abnormalities of CKD have now been recognized for their pathogenetic role not only in renal bone disease, often described as renal osteodystrophy (ROD), but also in a wide spectrum of disorders including vascular calcification and increased cardiovascular risk. As the definition of ROD does not adequately describe this diverse spectrum of disorders, the term chronic kidney
Natural Language Web Interface for Database (NLWIDB)
Rukshan Alexander,Prashanthi Rukshan,Sinnathamby Mahesan
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: It is a long term desire of the computer users to minimize the communication gap between the computer and a human. On the other hand, almost all ICT applications store information in to databases and retrieve from them. Retrieving information from the database requires knowledge of technical languages such as Structured Query Language. However majority of the computer users who interact with the databases do not have a technical background and are intimidated by the idea of using languages such as SQL. For above reasons, a Natural Language Web Interface for Database (NLWIDB) has been developed. The NLWIDB allows the user to query the database in a language more like English, through a convenient interface over the Internet.
Prediction of Gene Expression in Embryonic Structures of Drosophila melanogaster
Anastasia A Samsonova ,Mahesan Niranjan,Steven Russell,Alvis Brazma
PLOS Computational Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030144
Abstract: Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms.
The effect of an intercalated BSc on subsequent academic performance
Nishanthan Mahesan, Siobhan Crichton, Hannah Sewell, Simon Howell
BMC Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-76
Abstract: Retrospective data analysis of anonymised student records. The effects of intercalating on final year exam results, Foundation Programme score, application form score (from white-space questions), quartile rank score, and success with securing Foundation School of choice were assessed using linear and ordered logistic regression models, adjusted for course type, year of graduation, graduate status and baseline (Year 1) performance.The study included 1158 students, with 54% choosing to do an intercalated BSc, and 9.8% opting to do so at an external institution. Doing an intercalated BSc was significantly associated with improved outcome in Year 5 exams (P = 0.004). This was irrespective of the year students chose to intercalate, with no significant difference between those that intercalated after years 2, 3 and 4 (p = 0.3096). There were also higher foundation application scores (P < 0.0001), academic quartile scores (P = 0.0003) and resultant overall foundation scores (P < 0.0001) in intercalated students. These students also had improved success with securing their first choice Foundation School (p = 0.0220). Participants who remained at the institution to intercalate in general performed better than those that opted to intercalate elsewhere.Doing an intercalated BSc leads to an improvement in subsequent exam results and develops the skills necessary to produce a strong foundation programme application. It also leads to greater success with securing preferred Foundation School posts in students. Differences between internally- and externally-intercalating students may be due to varying course structures or greater challenge in adjusting to a new study environment.The choice of whether to undertake an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is one of the most important decisions that students must make during their time at medical school. In addition to broadening research skills, it also provides the opportunity to publish work and distinguish oneself in a co
Differentially expressed genes in adipocytokine signaling pathway of adipose tissue in pregnancy  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Jun Xu, Arnold M. Mahesan, Steve Rad, Eric Kim, Jacqueline Yano, Carolyn Alexander, Jerome I. Rotter, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.32013
Abstract:

Objective: To profile the differential gene expression of the KEGG Adipocytokine Signaling pathway in omental compared to subcutaneous tissue in normal pregnancy. Study Design: Subjects included 14 nonobese, normal glucose tolerant, healthy pregnant women. Matched omental and subcutaneous tissue were obtained at elective cesarean delivery. Gene expression was evaluated using microarray and validated by RT-PCR. Differential gene expression was defined as ≥1.5 fold increase at p < 0.05. Results: Six genes were significantly downregulated with two upregulated genes in omental tissue. Downregulation of Adiponectin and Insulin Receptor substrate, key genes mediating insulin sensitivity, were observed with borderline upregulation of GLUT-1. There were downregulations of CD36 and acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain Family Member 1which are genes involved in fatty acid uptake and activation. There was a novel expression of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C. Conclusion: Differential gene expression of Adipocytokine Signaling Pathway in omental relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue in normal pregnancy suggests a pattern of insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation.

Nutritional Correlates of Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2000-2010  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Amy Whitten, Arnold M. Mahesan, Anthea B. M. Paul, Judy Boura
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61008
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the associations of gestational diabetes (GDM) history with dietary intake, nutritional status, insulin resistance, demographic, and anthropometrical data. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2000-2010. Data analysis was based on 290 women who reported a history of GDM compared to 4239 women who denied a GDM history. Insulin resistance [HOMA_IR = (fasting insulin in mU/mL × fasting glucose in mmol/L)/405] was calculated. Pearson correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Student’s t-tests, and chi-square analysis were used while linear regression assessed independent associations. Results: The median time-lapse from the diagnosis of GDM was 15 years. Women with a GDM history had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), other anthropometric measurements, diastolic blood pressures and insulin resistance. They were also more likely to be Hispanic, have delivered macrosomic infants, and delivered via cesarean. Previous GDM history compared to non-GDM subjects had significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, mono-saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. Within the entire cohort, increasing insulin resistance was also associated with lower income, less college education, Hispanic or African American ethnicity, obesity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and with higher dietary cholesterol but lower intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Regression analyses showed that GDM history, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, dietary intake of cholesterol and decreasing income were independently predictive of insulin resistance. Conclusion: The data confirm that even many years after a pregnancy associated with GDM, women with a history of GDM still report significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, and fat with no corresponding increase in consumption of dietary fiber or minerals and vitamins. Consequently, the increased calorie and food consumption of women with previous GDM are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and higher blood pressures. These observations may suggest the need to target high-risk groups who may need more resources and awareness of the benefits of quality nutrition.
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