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Decrease in Lysine and Tryptophan Content in S2 Inbred Lines from a Quality Protein Maize (QPM) Variety in a Breeding Program  [PDF]
Kabwe Nkongolo, Kankolongo Mbuya
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61021
Abstract: Several countries in Africa, Latin America along with China have incorporated QPM in their Agricultural development plan. A new quality protein maize variety (QPM) was developed by breeders and farmers using the participatory breeding approach in the DR-Congo. It is adapted to all the maize growing regions in the country. Inbred lines from this new variety were produced for further development of maize synthetic populations. The main objective of the present study is to determine the level of amino acid changes in early generations of inbred lines. The results of the study revealed a significant decrease of 33% and 38% of tryptophan in S1 and S2 inbred lines compared to the original parental MUDISHI 3 population, respectively. There was a decrease of 15% of lysine in S2 inbred lines compared to the parental MUDISHI 3. Actually, S2 inbred lines of MUDISHI 3 contain similar level of lysine compared to the genetically improved normal maize (Salongo 2) that is currently released. The development of composite lines is recommended over synthetic populations to maintain the high levels of lysine and tryptophan along with other desirable agronomic characteristics since they involve the intercrossing of open pollinated varieties.
Influence of Climate Variability on Seasonal Rainfall Patterns in South-Western DR Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Muliele Muku, Kizungu Vumilia, Kiasala Lunekua, Mbuya Kankolongo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102952
Abstract:
Climate variability in DR Congo in general and in the Kongo Central Province in particular is well established. However, rains related to variables such as frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons was generally very little studied. This study aims to investigate the influence of the climate event on rainfall patterns in the south-western of the DRC. This is firstly to characterize the climate event from the analysis of the air temperature, the frequency of rainy days and duration of the rainy seasons. Furthermore compare the normal monthly rainfall over the period 1962- 2012 to clear the behavior of seasonal rainfall patterns. Climate variability is manifested by temporal dynamic regressive temperatures, annual rainfall and a decrease in the number of rainy days. A temperature increase of around 1 was observed from 1992 and the thermal peak was recorded in 1994 (>28℃). The highest rainfall was recorded in 2006 (>2400 mm). These variabilities cause short periods of intense rainfall leading to early droughts of the end of season.
Suitable Hybrids and Synthetics Provitamin A Maize Selected for Release in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Kabongo Tshiabukole, Pongi Khonde, Mbuya Kankolongo, Tshimbombo Jadika, Kaboko Kasongo, Mulumba Badibanga, Tshibanda Kasongo, Kizungu Vumilia
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103446
Abstract:
Six new provitamin A hybrids (LY1001-14, LY1001-22 and LY1001-23,) and synthetic maize varieties (PVASYN13, PVASYN9 and PVASYN7) were tested for their agronomic performance and compared to a locally adapted improved open pollinated variety (SAMARU) in the central and western conditions of DRC. A randomized complete block experiment with four replications was used. Following data were collected: 50% male and female flowering, plant and ear aspect, diseases incidence, plant height, ear aspect, ear rot and yield. The results showed non-significant differences (p > 0.05) in disease incidence and ears rot. Significant differences were observed (p < 0.05) for number of days to 50% of male and female flowering, anthesis-silking interval, plant height, plant aspect, ear aspect, and yield. For yield, two hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) respectively out-yielded local check by 71% and 56% while one synthetic (PVASYN 9) out-yielded the local check by 31% and the two others were comparable to the local check. Thus the hybrids (LY100-14 and LY1001-22) and synthetic varieties (PVASYN 9 and PVASYN13) are ready to be recommended for release to contribute to better production and nutrition for vulnerable people.
Evaluation of Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Eight Maize Varieties, Soybean and Cowpea in the Zone of Savanna of South-West RD Congo  [PDF]
Pongi Khonde, Kabongo Tshiabukole, Mbuya Kankolongo, Stefan Hauser, Mumba Djamba, Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103746
Abstract:
In order to enhance the legumes potential advantages on the cereal yield in intercropping system by nitrogen direct transfer from legume to cereal, an intercropping experiment was conducted between eight maize varieties (07SADVE, 08SADVE 1, 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1, Mudishi 3, VP0523, ZM538 and Samaru), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. H4) and soybean (Glycine max var. Vuangi) during November 2011-February 2012 season at INERA/Mvuazi in the south-western country of DR Congo. The experimental design was a Split plot with four replications, twenty six treatments were applied between maize varieties monocrops (40.000 plant·ha﹣1) and legumes in monoculture (360.000 plant·ha﹣1) and both of sole planting were combined. Evaluation of these soles planting was performed on basis of several intercropping indices (MYE, LER, ATER, RCC, A and CR), the monetary advantage index (MAI), Actual Yield Loss index (AYL) and intercropping index (IA). After data analysis, competitivity indices indicated the higher yields advantages of maize varieties in intercropping, especially Mudishi 3-soybean (MYE = 2836.300 kg·ha﹣1). The equivalent land ratio (LER) varied with 08SADVE 1variety between 0.70 and 1.66 in cowpea and soybean intercrops respectively, the Relative crowding coefficient (RCC) showed yield advantage of all intercrops except with 09SADVE F2, Mudishi 1 and 07SADVE. Aggressivity (A) showed dominance of maize in all intercrops, against the Competitive ratio (CR) showed that the competitivity was stronger on cowpea (from 16.42 to 98.63) than soybean (from 16.12 to 25.70). Actual yield loss (AYL) was negative in all intercrops with cowpea and soybean. Thus, the index of association (IA) informed that the negative values of the different intercrops were due to the maize price (1000 CDF·kg﹣1) and legumes price (1500 CDF·kg﹣1). Finally, the monetary advantage index (MAI = 922.92) and PCA had determined that intercrop with Mudishi 3-soybean as an economic efficiency intercrop than others mixtures.
Analysis of Adaptive Response of Maize (Zea mays) Varieties from DR-Congo to Water Stress  [PDF]
Jean Pierre Kabongo Tshiabukole, Amand Mbuya Kankolongo, Gertrude Pongi Khonde, Antoine Mumba Djamba, Roger Kizungu Vumilia, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89153
Abstract: Maize production in tropical Africa is often negatively affected by drought. The main objectives of the present study were to 1) analyze the impact of water stress on the agro-morphological performance of two varieties of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) compared to two normal maize varieties and 2) assess their adaptive response in contrasting water environments. Agro-morphological responses to water deficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) were assessed in controlled experiments using four maize varieties, two normal maize (Zm725 and Mus1) and two quality protein maize (Mudishi1 and Mudishi3) varieties. They were subjected to three water regimes (100%, 60%, 30% water retention capacity) at the beginning of the bloom stage, using a Fischer block design with four replications. Significant differences (p < 0.05) among varieties, water regimes and their interactions for plant growth and production parameters were observed. Reduction of water supply to plants caused changes in aerial and underground plant growth. Plant stem height, foliar expansion, and root system development characterizing vegetative growth showed variation in varietal response to water regimes. Mus1 (normal maize variety) was the best adapted to variations in water regimes because they developed an important root volume to adapt to the effects of water deficit while maintaining their morphological and productive characteristics.
Efficacy of antimalarial treatment in Guinea: in vivo study of two artemisinin combination therapies in Dabola and molecular markers of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in N'Zérékoré
Maryline Bonnet, Cally Roper, Martine Félix, Léonie Coulibaly, Gabriel Kankolongo, Jean Guthmann
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-54
Abstract: In Dabola (central Guinea), 220 children aged 6–59 months with falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either AS/amodiaquine (AQ) or AS/SP. In vivo efficacy was assessed following the 2003 World Health Organization guidelines. In a refugee camp in Laine (south of Guinea), where an in vivo study was not feasible due to the unstable context, a molecular genotyping study in 160 patients assessed the prevalence of mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) (codons 108, 51, 59) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) (codons 436, 437, 540) genes of Plasmodium falciparum, which have been associated with resistance to pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine, respectively.In Dabola, after 28 days of follow-up, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-adjusted failure rates were 1.0% (95%CI 0–5.3) for AS/AQ and 1.0% (95%CI 0–5.5) for AS/SP. In the refugee camp in Laine, the molecular genotyping study found three dhfr mutations in 85.6% (95%CI 79.2–90.7) patients and quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations in 9.6% (95%CI 5.2–15.9).Both AS/AQ and AS/SP are highly efficacious in Dabola, whereas there is molecular evidence of established SP resistance in Laine. This supports the choice of the national programme of Guinea to adopt AS/AQ as first line antimalarial treatment. The results highlight the difficulties faced by control programmes, which have gone through the upheaval of implementing ACTs, but cannot predict how long their therapeutic life will be, especially in countries which have chosen drugs also available as monotherapies.In the last five years, countries have been faced with changing their malaria treatment policy to an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), many with no national data on which to base their decision. This is particularly true for a number of West African countries; the Republic of Guinea is a good example. Indeed, when the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Guinea initiated its treatment policy change for treatment of non-severe malaria, replacing chlor
Human resources for health care delivery in Tanzania: a multifaceted problem
Fatuma Manzi, Joanna Schellenberg, Guy Hutton, Kaspar Wyss, Conrad Mbuya, Kizito Shirima, Hassan Mshinda, Marcel Tanner, David Schellenberg
Human Resources for Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-10-3
Abstract: A health facility survey was conducted to collect data on staff employed, their main tasks, availability on the day of the survey, reasons for absenteeism, and experience of supervisory visits from District Health Teams. In-depth interview with health workers was done to explore their perception of work load. A time and motion study of nurses in the Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) clinics documented their time use by task.We found that only 14% (122/854) of the recommended number of nurses and 20% (90/441) of the clinical staff had been employed at the facilities. Furthermore, 44% of clinical staff was not available on the day of the survey. Various reasons were given for this. Amongst the clinical staff, 38% were absent because of attendance to seminar sessions, 8% because of long-training, 25% were on official travel and 20% were on leave. RCH clinic nurses were present for 7 hours a day, but only worked productively for 57% of time present at facility. Almost two-third of facilities had received less than 3 visits from district health teams during the 6 months preceding the survey.This study documented inadequate staffing of health facilities, a high degree of absenteeism, low productivity of the staff who were present and inadequate supervision in peripheral Tanzanian health facilities. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of decentralized health care in Tanzania.In the last decade developing countries have witnessed an unprecedented increase in funds for the procurement of commodities such as drugs, vaccines and other medical supplies through the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), Global Alliance for Vaccine Initiatives (GAVI) and other Global Health Initiatives (GHIs). At the same time there is growing recognition of local health system constraints which impair the efficient delivery of health care and threaten to reduce the effectiveness of the GHIs [1-5]. Scale-up of basic health services depends on the
Care-seeking patterns for fatal malaria in Tanzania
Don de Savigny, Charles Mayombana, Eleuther Mwageni, Honorati Masanja, Abdulatif Minhaj, Yahya Mkilindi, Conrad Mbuya, Harun Kasale, Graham Reid
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-27
Abstract: This study documents care-seeking events in 320 children less than five years of age with fatal malaria seen between 1999 and 2001 during over 240,000 person-years of follow-up in a stable perennial malaria transmission setting in southern Tanzania. Accounts of care-seeking recorded in verbal autopsy histories were analysed to determine providers attended and the sequence of choices made as the patients' condition deteriorated.As first resort to care, 78.7% of malaria-attributable deaths used modern biomedical care in the form of antimalarial pharmaceuticals from shops or government or non-governmental heath facilities, 9.4% used initial traditional care at home or from traditional practitioners and 11.9% sought no care of any kind. There were no differences in patterns of choice by sex of the child, sex of the head of the household, socioeconomic status of the household or presence or absence of convulsions. In malaria deaths of all ages who sought care more than once, modern care was included in the first or second resort to care in 90.0% and 99.4% with and without convulsions respectively.In this study of fatal malaria in southern Tanzania, biomedical care is the preferred choice of an overwhelming majority of suspected malaria cases, even those complicated by convulsions. Traditional care is no longer a significant delaying factor. To reduce mortality further will require greater emphasis on recognizing danger signs at home, prompter care-seeking, improved quality of care at health facilities and better adherence to treatment.Malaria continues to be the largest single component of the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa, even though simple, effective and affordable treatments exist. Malaria's pervasive morbidity and high mortality persist because of failed transactions between those at risk of malaria transmission and available preventive and curative health systems. The consequence is not just an intolerable burden for individuals, their families and nation
Health and survival of young children in southern Tanzania
Joanna RM Armstrong Schellenberg, Mwifadhi Mrisho, Fatuma Manzi, Kizito Shirima, Conrad Mbuya, Adiel K Mushi, Sosthenes Ketende, Pedro L Alonso, Hassan Mshinda, Marcel Tanner, David Schellenberg
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-194
Abstract: We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health through a survey of all health facilities in the area. We did a representative cluster sample survey of 21,600 households using a modular questionnaire including household assets, birth histories, and antenatal care in currently pregnant women. In a subsample of households we asked about health of all children under two years, including breastfeeding, mosquito net use, vaccination, vitamin A, and care-seeking for recent illness, and measured haemoglobin and malaria parasitaemia.In the health facility survey, a prescriber or nurse was present on the day of the survey in about 40% of 114 dispensaries. Less than half of health facilities had all seven 'essential oral treatments', and water was available in only 22%. In the household survey, antenatal attendance (88%) and DPT-HepB3 vaccine coverage in children (81%) were high. Neonatal and infant mortality were 43.2 and 76.4 per 1000 live births respectively. Infant mortality was 40% higher for teenage mothers than older women (RR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 – 1.7), and 20% higher for mothers with no formal education than those who had been to school (RR 1.2, CI 1.0 – 1.4). The benefits of education on survival were apparently restricted to post-neonatal infants. There was no evidence of inequality in infant mortality by socio-economic status. Vaccine coverage, net use, anaemia and parasitaemia were inequitable: the least poor had a consistent advantage over children from the poorest families. Infant mortality was higher in families living over 5 km from their nearest health facility compared to those living closer (RR 1.25, CI 1.0 – 1.5): 75% of households live within this distance.Relatively short distances to health facilities, high antenatal and vaccine coverage show that peripheral health facilities have huge potential to make a difference to health and survival at household level in rural Tanza
Neonatal erythropoiesis and subsequent anemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Zimbabwean babies during the first year of life: a longitudinal study
Melissa F Miller, Jean H Humphrey, Peter J Iliff, Lucie C Malaba, Nkosinathi V Mbuya, the ZVITAMBO Study Group, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-6-1
Abstract: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study nested within the Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies Project. We measured hemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), serum transferrin receptor (TfR) and serum ferritin at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months of age and hemoglobin at 9 and 12 months in 3 groups of randomly selected infants: 136 born to HIV-negative mothers, and 99 born to HIV-positive mothers and who were infected themselves by 6 weeks of age, and 324 born to HIV-positive mothers but who did not become infected in the 6 months following birth.At one year of age, HIV-positive infants were 5.26 (adjusted odds ratio, P < 0.001) times more likely to be anemic compared to HIV-negative infants. Among, HIV-negative infants, EPO was or tended to be inversely associated with hemoglobin and was significantly positively associated with TfR throughout the first 6 months of life; TfR was significantly inversely associated with ferritin at 6 months; and EPO explained more of the variability in TfR than did ferritin. Among infected infants, the inverse association of EPO to hemoglobin was attenuated during early infancy, but significant at 6 months. Similar to HIV-negative infants, EPO was significantly positively associated with TfR throughout the first 6 months of life. However, the inverse association between TfR and ferritin observed among HIV-negative infants at 6 months was not observed among infected infants. Between birth and 6 months, mean serum ferritin concentration declined sharply (by ~90%) in all three groups of babies, but was significantly higher among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative babies at all time points.HIV strongly increases anemia risk and confounds interpretation of hematologic indicators in infants. Among HIV-infected infants, the EPO response to anemia is attenuated near the time of infection in the first weeks of life, but normalizes by 6 months.By the end of 2003, an estimated 2.1 million children worldwide were living with HIV [1]. Almost all infected c
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