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OALib Journal期刊

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Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among Interns in a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria  [PDF]
Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul, Tamunopreye Jaja, Peace Ibo Opara
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104122
Abstract:
Background: Health care workers especially interns may be at increased health risk due to exposure to blood and body fluids. Objective: To determine the prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (EBBF) among interns at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching hospital (UPTH). Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among interns at the UPTH. Informed written consent was obtained. The obtained data from a self-administered questionnaire and Infection Control Team records were analysed using SPSS version 21 and are presented as prose and tables. Results: Eighty four interns were studied giving a response rate of 93.3%: 40 (47.6%) were males while 44 (52.4%) were females giving a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Thirty two (38.1%) were aware of the availability of sharp bins, 55 (65.5%) recapped and discarded into waste bins while 4 (4.8%) discarded into sharp bins without re-capping. Prevalence of EBBF was 89.3%. Thirty one (41.4%) had Blood and Body Fluid Splash (BBFS), 22 (29.3%) had Needle Stick Injury (NSI) while 22 (29.3%) had combined NSI and BBFS. Thirteen (29.5%) of the NSI occurred during rotation in Paediatrics. Seventeen (32.1%) and 16 (30.2%) of BBFS occurred during Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics rotation respectively. Eleven (25%) reported the NSI to the Infection control team (ICT) and 3 (27.3%) completed 28 days of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). Common reason for not reporting was not been aware of the Infection Control Team (ICT) in 10 (30.3%). Conclusion: There is a need for improved training and close supervision of interns.
Recent Trends and Patterns of Gasoline Consumption in Nigeria
CY Jaja
Africa Development , 2010,
Abstract: This article analyses recent trends and spatial patterns of gasoline consumption in Nigeria. In particular, it shows that the volume of gasoline consumption in the country fluctuates with changes in economic growth. The pattern of distribution of gasoline consumption indicates that the largest consumption centres are in the South-West and South-South geopolitical zones of the country, specifically Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Edo, Rivers and Delta States. Other locations of high gasoline consumption are Kaduna, Kano, Imo states and Abuja (Federal Capital Territory). Compared with a previous study, the four additional centres identified are Ogun, Delta, Imo States and Abuja (FCT). Results of the multiple regression analysis show that the spatial variation in gasoline consumption is related to the number of gasoline-using vehicles newly registered and per capita income in the states. The study provides a framework for the development of meaningful policies for the reduction of transportation-related energy consumption.
Freight Traffic at Nigerian Seaports: Problems and Prospects
Chioma Yingigba Jaja
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2011.250.258
Abstract: The sea is the medium through which goods originating from and destined for different parts of the world are transported. Seaports in relation to trade are major gateways to the economy of Nigeria hence, play an important role in the development of the country. This study examines maritime freight traffic in Nigeria focusing on the types of freight, port competition for traffic and problems associated with freight traffic at the ports. Freight types are mainly containerised cargoes, general cargoes, roll-on-roll-off cargoes and petroleum products. General cargo was handled mostly by Tin Can island port, dry cargo by Apapa port and liquid cargo by Okrika port. Apapa port accounts for >30% of cargo throughput in the Nigerian seaports. This form of port specialisation has implications for the provision of facilities at the ports. Between 1990 and 2005, there was an increase in the cargo throughput, container traffic, net registered and gross registered tonnage of vessels at the ports and crude oil terminals. Major problems affecting freight traffic include inadequate cargo handling plants and equipment, long turn around time, cargo pilferage and excessive charges. The recent port reforms are expected to increase private sector participation and operational efficiency at the ports.
Globalization, Culture and the Great Disruption: An Assessment
Jones M. Jaja
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Globalization inspite of its touted advantages has become the greatest threat to economic and political sovereignty. Capitalism as we know it is falling apart especially in sub-Saharan Africa with a diverse culture and where the transformation is pervasive. This paper examines globalization historically, its dimension and context, national cultures and the ethnical perception of globalization. And concludes by examining the disruptive effect on African societies.
ANALISIS SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) DALAM PENGELOLAAN DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI: STUDI PADA SUNGAI CITARUM JAWA BARAT
Sam’un Jaja Raharja
Bumi Lestari , 2009,
Abstract: Different methods of watershed management have different technical and organizational problems. First, watershed management approach which was based on admisitrative region had clash of interest and authority. Second, river as resources of flow was not restricted by administrative boundary and technically there were impossible that flow of river stopped or switched to other regions because of the authority of every organization or institution. Consistent with technical and organizational problems above, watershed management based on space planning or government autonomy tended to be unoptimal, because it was not pararell with nature, characteristics of river flow (hidrologically), nor administrative or technical boundaries. In this condition, a new frame of watershed management needed, which had systemics frames, based on systemtematic thinking. One of tools of analysis which could be applaid was soft systems methodology (SSM).
PENDEKATAN KOLABORATIF DALAM PENGELOLAAN DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI CITARUM
Sama€?un Jaja Raharja
Bumi Lestari , 2010,
Abstract: Untintegrated management and complicated factors lead to problem in Citarum watershed management. The main problems of the research are the management of Citaruma€ s watershed has been fragmented and conflict among stakeholders. There is need a new concept and approach for managing Citarum watershed so that management of Citarum Watershed more effective. The base proposition of research is Citarum watershed management requires a concept about cooperation among stakeholders than can settle the conflict among them as consequence of fragmented-sectoral management. Based on research analysis, this research formulated some finding. Citarum watershed management are independent, it caused the absence of an institution which functions as leader. Relationship among organizations is ill-structured, caused by overlapping role and function among them. The most appropriate collaboration model for Citarum Watershed management is interdependent model. Research recommendation to rearrangement core task and function of organization base in term collaborative governance.
From Maxout to Channel-Out: Encoding Information on Sparse Pathways
Qi Wang,Joseph JaJa
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Motivated by an important insight from neural science, we propose a new framework for understanding the success of the recently proposed "maxout" networks. The framework is based on encoding information on sparse pathways and recognizing the correct pathway at inference time. Elaborating further on this insight, we propose a novel deep network architecture, called "channel-out" network, which takes a much better advantage of sparse pathway encoding. In channel-out networks, pathways are not only formed a posteriori, but they are also actively selected according to the inference outputs from the lower layers. From a mathematical perspective, channel-out networks can represent a wider class of piece-wise continuous functions, thereby endowing the network with more expressive power than that of maxout networks. We test our channel-out networks on several well-known image classification benchmarks, setting new state-of-the-art performance on CIFAR-100 and STL-10, which represent some of the "harder" image classification benchmarks.
Information Communication Technology (ICT) Facilities Availability and Usage in Rivers State Public and Private Primary Schools
Asodike Juliana,Jaja Atuwokiki Sam
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: This study examined the use of ICT facilities in Nigerian primary schools and its implications in enhancing the future of the Nigerian child. The study was conducted through survey drawn from 700 primary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. It comprised 430 public and 270 private primary schools in the State. A 28-item self-constructed instrument with a reliability coefficient of .92 tagged ‘Primary School ICT Use Survey’ was used for data collection. The results showed that primary schools in Rivers State generally have poor access to computers as indicated by approximately 25% of respondents. Primary schools in the State provide pupils with access to ICTs in various forms, except e-mail and internet because most of these schools are not connected (mean 4.00). Problems of funding, lack of teachers’ expertise in using ICT and poor power supply were indicated as factors inhibiting primary schools use of ICTs during lessons. Based on the findings, it was recommended that funding should be increased for the procurement of sufficient ICT facilities, teachers and pupils should be trained to enable them play active role in the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning. The study recommended further that emphasis be laid on the importance and use of ICTs in the educational development of children in this information age.
Newborn Cord Care Practices Amongst Mothers in Yenagoa Local Government Rea, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Peace Ibo Opara, Tamunopriye Jaja, Doris Atibi Dotimi, Balafama Abinye Alex-Hart
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31004
Abstract: Background: Clean cord care is one of the essential newborn care practices recommended by the World Health Organisation to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst the World’s newborns. Despite this, cord infections are still prevalent in developing countries because of the high rates of unhygienic cord care practices. The study aimed to explore cord care practices in our environment and identify areas for intervention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out amongst mothers attending three primary health care facilities with their infants in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Simple structured questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning the ages and sexes of babies, place of antenatal care and birth, treatments applied to the umbilical cord stump and the socioeconomic status of the parents. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and twenty one mothers participated in the study. The infants were aged 0 - 6 months with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Fifty four (24.4%) of mothers were of high social class. Cord care was done by grandmothers in 107(48.4%) and mothers in 89(40.3%) of babies. Sixty four (29.0%) mothers had their babies cord cleaned with Methylated spirit alone while 138(62.4%) cleaned with Methylated spirit and then applied other substances including antibiotic ointments and herbs. Maternal education, social class of parents and place of delivery were significantly associated with application of potentially harmful substances to the cord, (p = 0.049, 0.010 and 0.030 respectively). The commonest sources of information on cord care were nurses in 99 (44.8%) and grandmothers in 44 (19.9%). Conclusion: There is still a high rate of use of potentially harmful substances for cord care. All heath workers should participate in educating, mothers and grandmothers about optimal cord care.
Posterior Slope of Tibial Plateau in Adult Nigerian Subjects
Didia,Blessing C; Jaja,Blessing N. R;
International Journal of Morphology , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000100034
Abstract: normal values of the tibial slope are necessary for realignment of displaced fractures of the tibia crest, repair of cruciate ligaments and correction of knee deformities. true lateral radiographs of normal knees were obtained in 119 males and 93 female nigerian subjects. the tibial slope was then measured according to the anterior tibial cortex method. mean angle in sampled subjects was 12.3 ± 4.90 (range: 0-240). sex differences were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). this study provides reference values of tibial slope among indigenous adult nigerians. it also highlights on the clinical relevance of the angle and the need to establish normal ranges in other african populations.
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