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DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA
Sahlan,A. Soemargono
Agrivita : Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011,
Abstract: The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra), Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra), Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu), Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java) from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.
Reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics for acute cough: Adaptation of a leaflet aimed at Turkish immigrants in Germany
Selime Sahlan, Anja Wollny, Silke Brockmann, Angela Fuchs, Attila Altiner
BMC Family Practice , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-9-57
Abstract: The original leaflet was first translated into Turkish. Then 57 patients belonging to 8 different GPs were interviewed about the leaflet using a semi-standardised script. The material was audio recorded, fully transcribed, and analysed by three independent researchers. As a first step a comprehensive content analysis was performed. Secondly, elements crucial to any Turkish version of the leaflet were identified.The interviews showed that the leaflets' messages were clearly understood by all patients irrespective of age, gender, and educational background. We identified no major problems in the perception of the translated leaflet but identified several minor points which could be improved. We found that patients were starting to reconsider their attitudes after reading the leaflet.The leaflet successfully imparted relevant and new information to the target patients. A qualitative approach is a feasible way to prove general acceptance and provides additional information for its adaptation to medico-cultural factors.Approximately 80% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by GPs. A substantial proportion of these antibiotics are prescribed for acute respiratory infections, and in particular to patients with acute cough.[1-4] A general consensus exists that antibiotics are not usually necessary for the initial treatment of acute cough due to respiratory infections in otherwise healthy adults.[5] The over-prescribing of antibiotics puts patients at risk of side effects, increases the likelihood of bacterial resistance and produces unnecessary costs. As a result the question of when an antibiotic treatment is appropriate has become an important issue for primary health care across Europe, North America and many other countries.[1,6]Research shows that there are many misconceptions among the general public regarding the effectiveness and appropriate indicators for the use of antibiotics.[7] Furthermore the phenomenon of GPs misinterpreting patient demands has been rep
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