Skin infections are common disorders responsible for hospital attendance in the pediatric practice. Unfortunately, the epidemiology of these infections in tertiary facilities is both unstudied and underreported. Therefore, the burden of skin infections among children in Ghana remains indistinct. This hospital-based study sought to evaluate skin infections among children attending the Ho Teaching Hospital (HTH). In this retrospective study, the electronic medical records of children aged 0 to 14 years (12, 170) who attended the HTH’s pediatric unit outpatient clinic between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016 were reviewed. All (1, 877) identified dermatological case records from the database were retrieved. They were then double-checked to further affirm demographic information (age and sex) and diagnosis of skin infection with the medical folders to clarify unclear observations. Pearson chi square was used to evaluate the association between the different age group of the children and the types of skin infection as well as comorbidities. Only 1, 887 (15.5%) of all case records reported with a presenting dermatological complaint. Sixty-five percent (65%) of these (1226 of 1887) were diagnosed with a form of skin infection. Sixty-nine percent (69%) of children with skin infection were admitted into the ward for further management. Majority (441, 35.97%) of skin infected children were between 1 - 4 yrs. Impetigo (393, 46.6%) and furunculosis (410, 48.6%) were the most prevalent skin infections compared to herpes (3, 6.5%) and warts (4, 8.7%). The parasitic skin infection recorded in this study was scabies (23, 100%). Gender disparity existed, with female children aged 10 - 14 years significantly having more skin infection than males (<0.001). The prevalence of skin infections was 65.3% of childhood dermatological cases in the HTH. Further studies are needed to evaluate the skin infections burden in other parts of Ghana.
Cite this paper
Lopez, D. M. , Cervantes, B. Y. H. , Emmanuel, D. , Agordoh, P. D. , Almaguer, F. M. , Lambert, R. G. , De-Gaulle, V. F. , Mac-Ankrah, L. , Akum, F. A. and Orish, V. N. (2020). Infections of the Skin among Children in Ho Teaching Hospital of the Volta Region, Ghana. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6192. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106192.
Karimkhani, C., Dellavalle, R.P., Coffeng, L.E., Flohr, C., Hay, R.J., Langan, S.M., et al. (2017) Global Skin Disease Morbidity and Mortality an Update from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. JAMA Dermatology, 153, 406-412.
Wasnik, S., Pinto, V. and Joshi, S. (2018) Prevalence of Skin Infections and Regular Personal Hygiene Practices in Ashram School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. National Journal of Community Medicine, 9, 274-277.
Sladden, M.J. and Johnston, G. (2004) Clinical Review Common Skin Infections in Children. British Medical Journal, 329, 95-99.
Jain, A., Jain, S. and Rawat, S. (2010) Emerging Fungal Infections among Children: A Review on Its Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Prevention. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 2, 314-320.
Hogewoning, A., Bavinck, J.N.B., Willemze, R., Lavrijsen, A., Amoah, A., Boakye, D., et al. (2013) Skin Diseases among School Children in Ghana, Gabon, and Rwanda. International Journal of Dermatology, 52, 589-600.
Doe, P.T., Asiedu, A., Acheampong, J.W. and Rowland-Payne, C.M. (2001) Skin Diseases in Ghana and the UK. International Journal of Dermatology, 40, 323-326.
Maheé, A., N’Diaye, H.T. and Bobin, P. (1997) The Proportion of Medical Consultations Motivated by Skin Diseases in the Health Centers of Bamako (Republic of Mali). International Journal of Dermatology, 36, 185-186.
Rosenbaum, B.E., Klein, R., Hagan, P.G., Seadey, M., Quarcoo, N.L., Hoffmann, R., et al. (2017) Dermatology in Ghana: A Retrospective Review of Skin Disease at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Dermatology Clinic. The Pan African Medical Journal, 26, 125.
Kimura, H., Shirabe, K., Takeda, M., Kobayashi, M. and Cosby, S.L. (2019) The Association between Documentation of Koplik Spots and Laboratory Diagnosis of Measles and Other Rash Diseases in a National Measles Surveillance Programme in Japan. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 269. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00269
Stamatas, G.N., Nikolovski, J., Luedtke, M.A., Kollias, N. and Wiegand, B.C. (2010) Infant Skin Microstructure Assessed in Vivo Differs from Adult Skin in Organization and at the Cellular Level. Pediatric Dermatology, 27, 125-131.
Faure-Cognet, O., Fricker-Hidalgo, H., Pelloux, H. and Leccia, M.T. (2016) Superficial Fungal Infections in a French Teaching Hospital in Grenoble Area: Retrospective Study on 5470 Samples from 2001 to 2011. Mycopathologia, 181, 59-66.
Bortolussi, R., Martin, S. and Canadian Paediatric Society and Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee (2007) Antifungal Agents for Common Outpatient Paediatric Infections. Paediatrics & Child Health, 12, 875-878.