A huge number of investigations on the ecological sources, fate, and transport of viruses have been dedicated to non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus and enteroviruses. However, more recent global outbreaks of viral diseases have been provoked by enveloped viruses comprising viruses from the Coronavirus family (SARS, MERS, COVID-19). Enveloped viruses have a lipid membrane encircling their protein capsid and genome. SARS-CoV-2 will surely not be the ultimate fresh virus to jut and badly terrorize worldwide public health and life. Scientists and funding agencies have a trend to concentrate largely on a particular virus throughout its eruption; however, then advance on to different themes when the eruption calms. Considering the historical contributions from environmental engineering, and the huge dares that emerge, environmental science and engineering specialists have to adopt a larger, long-term, and more quantitative strategy to comprehending viruses that are diffusing through nature. Identical to the manner by which chemical contaminants are handled in the environment, the particular properties that control transport and demobilization of enveloped viruses in solutions, on surfaces, and in the air must be understood. Besides, the fashion by which ecological parameters form likely virus transmission mechanisms should be comprehended. Thereby, despite the identity of the enveloped virus that provokes the following main eruption, more sophisticated detailing of its endurance and guidance on how to reduce its diffusion may be given.
Boehm, A. and Wigginton, K. (2020) Overview of Research on the Fate and Behavior of Enveloped Viruses in the Environment, Virtual Issue.
Qu, G., Li, X., Hu, L. and Jiang, G. (2020) An Imperative Need for Research on the Role of Environmental Factors in Transmission of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Environmental Science & Technology, 54, 3730-3732.
Weber, D.J., Rutala, W.A., Fischer, W.A., Kanamori, H. and Sickbert-Bennett, E.E. (2016) Emerging Infectious Diseases: Focus on Infection Control Issues for Novel Coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). American Journal of Infection Control, 44, E91-E100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2015.11.018
Yu, I.T., Li, Y., Wong, T.W., Tam, W., Chan, A.T., Lee, J.H., Leung, D.Y. and Ho, T. (2004) Evidence of Airborne Transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Virus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 350, 1731-1739.
Holshue, M.L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K.H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., Spitters, C., Ericson, K., Wilkerson, S., Tural, A., Diaz, G., Cohn, A., Fox, L., Patel, A., Gerber, S.I., Kim, L., Tong, S., Lu, X., Lindstrom, S., Pallansch, M.A., Weldon, W.C., Biggs, H.M., Uyeki, T.M. and Pillai, S.K. (2020) First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 929-936. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
Magro, L., Escadafal, C., Garneret, P., Jacquelin, B., Kwasiborski, A., Manuguerra, J.C., Monti, F., Sakuntabhai, A., Vanhomwegen, J., Lafaye, P. and Tabeling, P. (2017) Paper Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT) of Infectious Diseases. Lab on a Chip, 17, 2347-2371.
Reboud, J., Xu, G., Garrett, A., Adriko, M., Yang, Z., Tukahebwa, E.M., Rowell, C. and Cooper, J.M. (2019) Paper-Based Microfluidics for DNA Diagnostics of Malaria in Low Resource Underserved Rural Communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, 4834-4842.
Wigginton, K.R. and Boehm, A.B. (2020) Environmental Engineers and Scientists Have Important Roles to Play in Stemming Outbreaks and Pandemics Caused by Enveloped Viruses. Environmental Science & Technology, 54, 3736-3739.
Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20170603.13
Boucherit, A., Moulay, S., Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) New Trends in Disinfection By-Products Formation upon Water Treatment. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 628833.
Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.018
Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection by Electrocoagulation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 141, 68-81. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2019.23457
Cai, J., Sun, W., Huang, J., Gamber, M., Wu, J. and He, G. (2020) Indirect Virus Transmission in Cluster of COVID-19 Cases Wenzhou, China 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200412
Kim, Y., Krishna, V.D., Torremorell, M., Goyal, S.M. and Cheeran, M.C.-J. (2018) Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures. Veterinary Science, 5, 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010021
Lin, K. and Marr, L.C. (2020) Humidity-Dependent Decay of Viruses, But Not Bacteria, in Aerosols and Droplets Follows Disinfection Kinetics. Environmental Science & Technology, 54, 1024-1032. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04959
Casanova, L.M., Jeon, S., Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J. and Sobsey, M.D. (2010) Effects of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on Coronavirus Survival on Surfaces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 2712-2717.
Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-Products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22.
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) The Lethal Water Tri-Therapy: Chlorine, Alum, and Polyelectrolyte. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 65-71. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.14
Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.14
Gallandat, K., Wolfe, M.K. and Lantagne, D. (2017) Surface Cleaning and Disinfection: Efficacy Assessment of Four Chlorine Types Using Escherichia coli and the Ebola Surrogate Phi6. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 4624-4631.
Wood, J.P., Richter, W., Sunderman, M., Calfee, M.W., Serre, S. and Mickelsen, L. (2020) Evaluating the Environmental Persistence and Inactivation of MS2 Bacteriophage and the Presumed Ebola Virus Surrogate Phi6 Using Low Concentration Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor. Environmental Science & Technology, 54, 3581-3590.
Wigginton, K.R., Ye, Y. and Ellenberg, R.M. (2015) Emerging Investigators Series: The Source and Fate of Pandemic Viruses in the Urban Water Cycle. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 1, 735-746.
Woelfel, R., Corman, V.M., Guggemos, W., Seilmaier, M., Zange, S., Mueller, M.A., Niemeyer, D., Vollmar, P., Rothe, C., Hoelscher, M., Bleicker, T., Bruenink, S., Schneider, J., Ehmann, R., Zwirglmaier, K., Drosten, C. and Wendtner, C. (2020) Clinical Presentation and Virological Assessment of Hospitalized Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a Travel-Associated Transmission Cluster. Infectious Diseases (except HIV/AIDS). https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.05.20030502
Ye, Y., Ellenberg, R.M., Graham, K.E. and Wigginton, K.R. (2016) Survivability, Partitioning, and Recovery of Enveloped Viruses in Untreated Municipal Wastewater. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 5077-5085.
Qiao, Z., Ye, Y., Chang, P.H., Thirunarayanan, D. and Wigginton, K.R. (2018) Nucleic Acid Photolysis by UV254 and the Impact of Virus Encapsidation. Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 10408-10415.
Ye, Y., Chang, P.H., Hartert, J. and Wigginton, K.R. (2018) Reactivity of Enveloped Virus Genome, Proteins, and Lipids with Free Chlorine and UV254. Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 7698-7708. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00824
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Strategies for Reducing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrocoagulation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6076. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106076
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Controlling Disinfection By-Products Formation in Rainwater: Technologies and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6162. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106162
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOPs) for Disinfecting Water: Fresh Perspectives. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6257. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106257
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Disinfecting Water with the Carbon Fiber-Based Flow-Through Electrode System (FES): Towards Axial Dispersion and Velocity Profile. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6238.
Ghernaout, D. (2017) Water Reuse (WR): The Ultimate and Vital Solution for Water Supply Issues. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20170304.12
Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2019) Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5895. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105895
Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88. https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Improving Energetically Operational Procedures in Wastewater Treatment Plants. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 64-72. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.09.010
Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.16.555934
Aquino de Carvalho, N., Stachler, E.N., Cimabue, N. and Bibby, K. (2017) Evaluation of Phi6 Persistence and Suitability as an Enveloped Virus Surrogate. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 8692-8700.
Hulkower, R.L., Casanova, L.M., Rutala, W.A., Weber, D.J. and Sobsey, M.D. (2011) Inactivation of Surrogate Coronaviruses on Hard Surfaces by Healthcare Germicides. American Journal of Infection Control, 39, 401-407.
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 in the Core of the Best Available Technologies for Dealing with Present Dares in Domestic Wastewater Reuse. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6161.
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Touahmia, M., Aichouni, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Nanotechnology Phenomena in the Light of the Solar Energy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, 3, 1-8.
Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2008) Application of Electrocoagulation in Escherichia coli Culture and Two Surface Waters. Desalination, 219, 118-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.010
Belhout, D., Ghernaout, D., Djezzar-Douakh, S. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electrocoagulation of a Raw Water of Ghrib Dam (Algeria) in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1081
Ghernaout, D., Benblidia, C. and Khemici, F. (2015) Microalgae Removal from Ghrib Dam (Ain Defla, Algeria) Water by Electroflotation Using Stainless Steel Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 3328-3337.
Bibby, K., Aquino de Carvalho, N. and Wigginton, K. (2017) Research Needs for Wastewater Handling in Virus Outbreak Response. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 2534-2535. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b06492
Diemert, S. and Yan, T. (2019) Clinically Unreported Salmonellosis Outbreak Detected via Comparative Genomic Analysis of Municipal Wastewater Salmonella Isolates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85, e00139-19.