At COVID-19 time, viruses in water become gravely dangerous to human health and life and very resistant to traditional disinfection methods. As a type of encouraging endeavor for contamination removal, plasma discharge shows good results in dealing with viruses’ removal. Indeed, more efficient, cheaper, and environmentally-friendly than conventional disinfection techniques, electrical discharge technologies are confirmed as. UV emission from plasma dispositions and the impacts of irradiation on microorganisms become broadly studied. Throughout ozonation, implementing pulsed high-voltages can lead to better diffusion of ozone in water and quicker transformation of ozone into free radicals. Via direct electrical discharges, purifying water has trends to be examined on a large-scale. Both in water and above water level, the electrical discharges possess their advantages and disadvantages. Above water level, which is in the gas phase, electrical discharges need less energy for the discharge to occur; however, in water, electrical discharges need an easier setup and form the chemically active species that could immediately bombard the aqueous contaminants. One of the kinds of electrical discharges, pulsed corona discharge remains the most tried and looks to be the most encouraging for treating water. Such methods could be methodically experimented with determining the optimal circumstances for killing COVID-19 and different pathogens from water. Merging plasma discharge, electrocoagulation, and magnetic field implementation can lead to better performances. As a secure physical separation, the final step has to involve activated carbon adsorption pursued by a membrane process to retain organic matter liberated from the cellular cytoplasm throughout oxidation and disinfection methods.
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Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6003. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106003
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Xu, H., Ma, R., Zhu, Y., Du, M., Zhang, H. and Jiao, Z. (2020) A Systematic Study of the Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma for Water Disinfection. Science of the Total Environment, 703, Article ID: 134965.
Xiao, R., Bai, L., Liu, K., Shi, Y., Minakata, D., Huang, C.-H., Spinney, R., Seth, R., Dionysiou, D.D., Wei, Z. and Sun, P. (2020) Elucidating Sulfate Radical-Mediated Disinfection Profiles and Mechanisms of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in Municipal Wastewater. Water Research, 173, Article ID: 115552.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOPs) for Disinfecting Water—Fresh Perspectives. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6257. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106257
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Disinfecting Water with the Carbon Fiber-Based Flow-Through Electrode System (FES): Towards Axial Dispersion and Velocity Profile. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6238.
Hooper, J., Funk, D., Bell, K., Noibi, M., Vickstrom, K., Schulz, C., Machek, E. and Huang, C.-H. (2020) Pilot Testing of Direct and Indirect Potable Water Reuse Using Multistage Ozone-Biofiltration without Reverse Osmosis. Water Research, 169, Article ID: 115178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115178
Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22.
Boucherit, A., Moulay, S., Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) New Trends in Disinfection By-Products Formation upon Water Treatment. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 628833.
Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.14
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) The Lethal Water Tri-Therapy: Chlorine, Alum, and Polyelectrolyte. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 65-71. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.14
Gerrity, D., Stanford, B.D., Trenholm, R.A. and Snyder, S.A. (2010) An Evaluation of a Pilot-Scale Nonthermal Plasma Advanced Oxidation Process for Trace Organic Compound Degradation. Water Research, 44, 493-504.
Liao, X., Cullen, P.J., Liu, D., Muhammad, A.I., Chen, S., Ye, X., Wang, J. and Ding, T. (2018) Combating Staphylococcus aureus and Its Methicillin Resistance Gene (mecA) with Cold Plasma. Science of the Total Environment, 645, 1287-1295.
Svarnas, P., Giannakopoulos, E., Kalavrouziotis, I., Krontiras, C., Georga, S., Pasolari, R.S., Papadopoulos, P.K., Apostolou, I. and Chrysochoou, D. (2020) Sanitary Effect of FE-DBD Cold Plasma in Ambient Air on Sewage Biosolids. Science of the Total Environment, 705, Article ID: 135940.
Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117.
Patange, A., Boehm, D., Giltrap, M., Lu, P., Cullen, P.J. and Bourke, P. (2018) Assessment of the Disinfection Capacity and Eco-Toxicological Impact of Atmospheric Cold Plasma for Treatment of Food Industry Effluents. Science of the Total Environment, 631-632, 298-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.269
Ghernaout, D., Benblidia, C. and Khemici, F. (2015) Microalgae Removal from Ghrib Dam (Ain Defla, Algeria) Water by Electroflotation Using Stainless Steel Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 3328-3337.
Chen, P.-F., Zhang, R.-J., Huang, S.-B., Shao, J.-H., Cui, B., Du, Z.-L., Xue, L., Zhou, N., Hou, B. and Lin, C. (2020) UV Dose Effects on the Revival Characteristics of Microorganisms in Darkness after UV Disinfection: Evidence from a Pilot Study, Science of the Total Environment, 713, Article ID: 136582.
Haaken, D., Dittmar, T., Schmalz, V. and Worch, E. (2014) Disinfection of Biologically Treated Wastewater and Prevention of Biofouling by UV/Electrolysis Hybrid Technology: Influence Factors and Limits for Domestic Wastewater Reuse. Water Research, 52, 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.12.029
Nguyen, T.M.H., Suwan, P., Koottatep, T. and Beck, S.E. (2019) Application of a Novel, Continuous-Feeding Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode (UV-LED) System to Disinfect Domestic Wastewater for Discharge or Agricultural Reuse. Water Research, 153, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.006
Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection by Electrocoagulation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 141, 68-81. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2019.23457
Kheyrandish, A., Mohseni, M. and Taghipour, F. (2017) Development of a Method for the Characterization and Operation of UV-LED for Water Treatment. Water Research, 122, 570-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.06.015
Liang, J., Liu, F., Li, M., Liu, W. and Tong, M. (2018) Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Fe3O4@BiOI@AgI for Water Decontamination with Visible Light Irradiation: Different Mechanisms for Different Organic Pollutants Degradation and Bacterial Disinfection. Water Research, 137, 120-129.
Cheng, R., Kang, M., Zhuang, S., Wang, S., Zheng, X., Pan, X., Shi, L. and Wang, J. (2019) Removal of Bacteriophage f2 in Water by Fe/Ni Nanoparticles: Optimization of Fe/Ni Ratio and Influencing Factors. Science of the Total Environment, 649, 995-1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.380
Sun, H., Li, G., An, T., Zhao, H. and Wong, P.K. (2016) Unveiling the Photoelectrocatalytic Inactivation Mechanism of Escherichia coli: Convincing Evidence from Responses of Parent and Anti-Oxidation Single Gene Knockout Mutants. Water Research, 88, 135-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.10.003
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Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20170603.13
Xia, D., An, T., Li, G., Wang, W., Zhao, H. and Wong, P.K. (2016) Synergistic Photocatalytic Inactivation Mechanisms of Bacteria by Graphene Sheets Grafted Plasmonic Ag-AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) Composite Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation. Water Research, 99, 149-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.04.055
Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2008) Application of Electrocoagulation in Escherichia coli Culture and Two Surface Waters. Desalination, 219, 118-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.010
Saiba, A., Kourdali, S., Ghernaout, B. and Ghernaout, D. (2010) In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the Birth of a New Seawater Pre-Treatment Process: Electrocoagulation—An Overview. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 201-217.
Belhout, D., Ghernaout, D., Djezzar-Douakh, S. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electrocoagulation of a Raw Water of Ghrib Dam (Algeria) in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 1-9.
Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) On the Controversial Effect of Sodium Sulphate as Supporting Electrolyte on Electrocoagulation Process: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 27, 243-254. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.1983
Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) A Review of Electrocoagulation as a Promising Coagulation Process for Improved Organic and Inorganic Matters Removal by Electrophoresis and Electroflotation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 28, 287-320. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.1493
Ghernaout, D., Irki, S. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Removal of Cu2 and Cd2 , and Humic Acid and Phenol by Electrocoagulation Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52, 3256-3270.
Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Influence of Operating Parameters on Electrocoagulation of C.I. Disperse Yellow 3. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 4, 271-283.
Jeong, E., Kim, C.U., Byun, J., Lee, J., Kim, H.-E., Kim, E.-J., Choi, K.J. and Hong, S.W. (2020) Quantitative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Factors of ZnO Nanorod Arrays under Dark Conditions: Physical and Chemical Effects on Escherichia coli Inactivation. Science of the Total Environment, 712, Article ID: 136574.
Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Irki, S., Grini, A., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Decolourization of Bromophenol Blue by Electrocoagulation Process. Trends in Chemical Engineering, 15, 29-39.
Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W., Benchelighem, F.Z. and Boucherit, A. (2015) Electrocoagulation of Direct Brown 2 (DB) and BF Cibacete Blue (CB) Using Aluminum Electrodes. Separation Science and Technology, 50, 1413-1420.
Irki, S., Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2017) Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). Desalination and Water Treatment, 79, 368-377.
Cho, M., Kim, J., Kim, J.Y., Yoon, J. and Kim, J.-H. (2010) Mechanisms of Escherichia coli Inactivation by Several Disinfectants. Water Research, 44, 3410-3418.
Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). II. Effect of Connection Mode. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.13
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process: A Mechanistic Review at the Dawn of Its Modeling. Journal of Environmental Science and Allied Research, 2, 51-67.
Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Saiba, A., Boucherit, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Removal of Humic Acids by Continuous Electromagnetic Treatment Followed by Electrocoagulation in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination, 239, 295-308.
Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2008) Effect of pH on Electrocoagulation of Bentonite Suspensions in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 29, 1272-1275.
Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2009) Natural Organic Matter Removal and Enhanced Coagulation as a Link between Coagulation and Electrocoagulation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2, 203-222.
Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Boucherit, A., Naceur, M.W., Khelifa, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Study on Mechanism of Electrocoagulation with Iron Electrodes in Idealised Conditions and Electrocoagulation of Humic Acids Solution in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 8, 91-99.
Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Improving Energetically Operational Procedures in Wastewater Treatment Plants. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 64-72. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.09.010
Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.16.555934
Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88. https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
Ghernaout, D. (2018) Magnetic Field Generation in the Water Treatment Perspectives: An Overview. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 193-203. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.01.025
Rodríguez-Chueca, J., Silva, T., Fernandes, J.R., Lucas, M.S., Puma, G.L., Peres, J.A. and Sampaio, A. (2017) Inactivation of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Freshwater Using HSO5？/UV-A LED and HSO5？/Mn /UV-A LED Oxidation Processes. Water Research, 123, 113-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.06.021
Lee, E.-J., Lee, W., Kim, M., Choi, E.H. and Kim, Y.-J. (2016) Arc Discharge-Mediated Disassembly of Viral Particles in Water. Water Research, 102, 305-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.06.052
Ghernaout, D., Mariche, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electromagnetic Treatment-Bi-Electrocoagulation of Humic Acid in Continuous Mode Using Response Surface Method for Its Optimization and Application on Two Surface Waters. Desalination and Water Treatment, 22, 311-329.
Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorizing Methyl Orange by Fe-Electrocoagulation Process: A Mechanistic Insight. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 18-28.
Ghernaout, D. (2014) The Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Ratio vs. Dissolved Organics Removal by Coagulation: A Review. Journal of King Saud University—Science, 26, 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.09.005
Ghernaout, D., El-Wakil, A., Alghamdi, A., Elboughdiri, N. and Mahjoubi, A. (2018) Membrane Post-Synthesis Modifications and How It Came about. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 60-64.
Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12.
Ait Messaoudene, N., Naceur, M.W., Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) On the Validation Perspectives of the Proposed Novel Dimensionless Fouling Index. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 116-122.