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Disinfecting Water: Plasma Discharge for Removing Coronaviruses

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106314, PP. 1-29

Subject Areas: Public Health, Chemical Engineering & Technology, Infectious Diseases

Keywords: Coronaviruses, COVID-19, Corona Discharge, Dielectric-Barrier Discharges (DBDs), UV Radiation, Disinfection

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Abstract

At COVID-19 time, viruses in water become gravely dangerous to human health and life and very resistant to traditional disinfection methods. As a type of encouraging endeavor for contamination removal, plasma discharge shows good results in dealing with viruses’ removal. Indeed, more efficient, cheaper, and environmentally-friendly than conventional disinfection techniques, electrical discharge technologies are confirmed as. UV emission from plasma dispositions and the impacts of irradiation on microorganisms become broadly studied. Throughout ozonation, implementing pulsed high-voltages can lead to better diffusion of ozone in water and quicker transformation of ozone into free radicals. Via direct electrical discharges, purifying water has trends to be examined on a large-scale. Both in water and above water level, the electrical discharges possess their advantages and disadvantages. Above water level, which is in the gas phase, electrical discharges need less energy for the discharge to occur; however, in water, electrical discharges need an easier setup and form the chemically active species that could immediately bombard the aqueous contaminants. One of the kinds of electrical discharges, pulsed corona discharge remains the most tried and looks to be the most encouraging for treating water. Such methods could be methodically experimented with determining the optimal circumstances for killing COVID-19 and different pathogens from water. Merging plasma discharge, electrocoagulation, and magnetic field implementation can lead to better performances. As a secure physical separation, the final step has to involve activated carbon adsorption pursued by a membrane process to retain organic matter liberated from the cellular cytoplasm throughout oxidation and disinfection methods.

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Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020). Disinfecting Water: Plasma Discharge for Removing Coronaviruses. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6314. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106314.

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[97]  Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Influence of Operating Parameters on Electrocoagulation of C.I. Disperse Yellow 3. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 4, 271-283. https://doi.org/10.5599/jese.2014.0065
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[99]  Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Irki, S., Grini, A., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2014) Decolourization of Bromophenol Blue by Electrocoagulation Process. Trends in Chemical Engineering, 15, 29-39.
[100]  Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W., Benchelighem, F.Z. and Boucherit, A. (2015) Electrocoagulation of Direct Brown 2 (DB) and BF Cibacete Blue (CB) Using Aluminum Electrodes. Separation Science and Technology, 50, 1413-1420. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2014.982763
[101]  Irki, S., Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2017) Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). Desalination and Water Treatment, 79, 368-377. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2017.20797
[102]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Electrocoagulation Process: Achievements and Green Perspectives. Colloid and Surface Science, 3, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.css.20180301.11
[103]  Cho, M., Kim, J., Kim, J.Y., Yoon, J. and Kim, J.-H. (2010) Mechanisms of Escherichia coli Inactivation by Several Disinfectants. Water Research, 44, 3410-3418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.017
[104]  Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). II. Effect of Connection Mode. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.13
[105]  Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process: A Mechanistic Review at the Dawn of Its Modeling. Journal of Environmental Science and Allied Research, 2, 51-67. https://doi.org/10.29199/2637-7063/ESAR-201019
[106]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Saiba, A., Boucherit, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Removal of Humic Acids by Continuous Electromagnetic Treatment Followed by Electrocoagulation in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination, 239, 295-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.04.001
[107]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2008) Effect of pH on Electrocoagulation of Bentonite Suspensions in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 29, 1272-1275. https://doi.org/10.1080/01932690701857483
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[109]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Boucherit, A., Naceur, M.W., Khelifa, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Study on Mechanism of Electrocoagulation with Iron Electrodes in Idealised Conditions and Electrocoagulation of Humic Acids Solution in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 8, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2009.668
[110]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Increasing Trends towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180301.11
[111]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Improving Energetically Operational Procedures in Wastewater Treatment Plants. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 64-72. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.09.010
[112]  Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.16.555934
[113]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Reviviscence of Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 46-55.
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[117]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) On the Treatment Trains for Municipal Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6088.
[118]  Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88. https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
[119]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Magnetic Field Generation in the Water Treatment Perspectives: An Overview. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 193-203. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.01.025
[120]  Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Ferrate(VI): In Situ Generation and Water Treatment—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 30, 319-332. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.2217
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[127]  Ghernaout, D., Mariche, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electromagnetic Treatment-Bi-Electrocoagulation of Humic Acid in Continuous Mode Using Response Surface Method for Its Optimization and Application on Two Surface Waters. Desalination and Water Treatment, 22, 311-329. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1120
[128]  Irki, S., Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorizing Methyl Orange by Fe-Electrocoagulation Process: A Mechanistic Insight. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 18-28. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijec.20180201.14
[129]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Magnetic Field Application: An Underappreciated Outstanding Technology. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6000.
[130]  Ghernaout, D. (2014) The Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Ratio vs. Dissolved Organics Removal by Coagulation: A Review. Journal of King Saud University—Science, 26, 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.09.005
[131]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5981.
[132]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Eliminating Cyanobacteria and Controlling Algal Organic Matter—Short Notes. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6252. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106252
[133]  Barrera, H., Cruz-Olivares, J., Frontana-Uribe, B.A., Gómez-Díaz, A., Reyes-Romero, P.G. and Barrera-Diaz, C.E. (2020) Electro-Oxidation-Plasma Treatment for Azo Dye Carmoisine (Acid Red 14) in an Aqueous Solution. Materials, 13, 1463. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061463
[134]  Ghernaout, D. and El-Wakil, A. (2017) Requiring Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modifications: An Overview. American Journal of Chemical Engineering, 5, 81-88. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20170504.15
[135]  Ghernaout, D., El-Wakil, A., Alghamdi, A., Elboughdiri, N. and Mahjoubi, A. (2018) Membrane Post-Synthesis Modifications and How It Came about. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 60-64. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.010
[136]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20180602.12
[137]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology. Applied Engineering, 3, 71-84.
[138]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Environmental Engineering for Stopping Viruses Pandemics. Open Access Lib. J., 7, e6299.
[139]  Ait Messaoudene, N., Naceur, M.W., Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) On the Validation Perspectives of the Proposed Novel Dimensionless Fouling Index. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 116-122.

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