All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Desalination in the Context of Water Scarcity Crisis: Dares & Perspectives

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106963, PP. 1-21

Subject Areas: Chemical Engineering & Technology

Keywords: Desalination, Seawater (SW), Brackish Water (BW), Thermal Desalination, Membrane Desalination, Water Provision-Need Vacuum

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

Throughout the world, providing drinking water via desalination engineering becomes a more and more adopted option. With quickly progressing desalination engineering and market maturation, desalination prices are fast dropping, and the ecological effects of desalination are steadily relieved. Even if desalination is probably to stay more costly in nearly all areas than conventional water provision solutions, it could turn into progressively a solution to satisfy inevitable deficiencies for particular markets. Consequently, desalination has to be employed strategically inside a combined water-planning program. This work discusses desalination as a practicable option to reduce a water provision-need vacuum and its techniques and features. Ecological duties should force a huge extension of used water gathering and handling; further, increasing water shortage and prices could render used water reuse growingly a profitable solution. Nontraditional solutions like wastewater reuse and desalination have to be considered jointly to deal with water shortage. Improving adopted technologies and increasing allocated funds to these future and indispensable nontraditional solutions remain unavoidable. Secured technologies like membrane processes should be largely applied throughout the world to secure potable water for all humankind.

Cite this paper

Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020). Desalination in the Context of Water Scarcity Crisis: Dares & Perspectives. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6963. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106963.

References

[1]  World Bank (2019) The Role of Desalination in an Increasingly Water-Scarce World. Washington DC.
[2]  Irki, S., Kasbadji-Merzouk, N., Hanini, S. and Ghernaout, D. (2020) Modelling of the Coupling of Desalination Plants with the Thermal Solar Energy System. Water Supply, 20, 1807-1822. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2020.092
[3]  McDonald, R.I., Weber, K., Padowski, J., Florke, M., Schneider, C., Green, P.A., Gleeson, T., Eckman, S., Lehner, B., Balk, D., Boucher, T., Grill, G. and Montgomery, M. (2014) Water on an Urban Planet: Urbanization and the Reach of Urban Water Infrastructure. Global Environmental Change, 27, 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.022
[4]  Richey, A.S., Thomas, B.F., Lo, M.-H., Reager, J.T. and Famiglietti, J.S. (2015) Quantifying Renewable Groundwater Stress Using GRACE. Water Resources Research, 51, 5217-5238. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017349
[5]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2020) Controlling COVID-19 Pandemic through Wastewater Monitoring. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6411. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106411
[6]  Veldkamp, T.I.E., Wada, Y., Aerts, J.C.J.H. and Ward, P.J. (2016) Towards a Global Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework Incorporation of Probability Distributions and Hydro-Climatic Variability. Environmental Research Letters, 11, Article ID: 024006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024006
[7]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Domestic Wastewater Treatment: Difficulties and Reasons, and Prospective Solutions—China as an Example. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6141.
[8]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Urgent Proposals for Disinfecting Hospital Wastewaters during COVID-19 Pandemic. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6373. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106373
[9]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Improving Energetically Operational Procedures in Wastewater Treatment Plants. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 64-72. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.09.010
[10]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2020) Fenton Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6045. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106045
[11]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment: Facts and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6139.
[12]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20170603.13
[13]  Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88. https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
[14]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) Desalination Engineering: Environmental Impacts of the Brine Disposal and Their Control. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6777.
[15]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Water Reuse (WR): The Ultimate and Vital Solution for Water Supply Issues. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijsdr.20170304.12
[16]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Al Arni, S. (2019) Water Reuse (WR): Dares, Restrictions, and Trends. Applied Engineering, 3, 159-170.
[17]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2019) Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5895. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105895
[18]  Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934. https://doi.org/10.19080/IJESNR.2019.16.555934
[19]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Reviviscence of Biological Wastewater Treatment—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 46-55.
[20]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plant to Obtain Drinking Water. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5959. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105959
[21]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20180602.12
[22]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Increasing Trends towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180301.11
[23]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6020.
[24]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5981.
[25]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 in the Core of the Best Available Technologies for Dealing with Present Dares in Domestic Wastewater Reuse. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6161. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106161
[26]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Embodying the Chemical Water Treatment in the Green Chemistry—A Review. Desalination, 271, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.032
[27]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) On the Concept of the Future Drinking Water Treatment Plant: Algae Harvesting from the Algal Biomass for Biodiesel Production—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 49, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2012.708191
[28]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Environmental Engineering for Stopping Viruses Pandemics. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6299.
[29]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Greening Cold Fusion as an Energy Source for Water Treatment Distillation—A Perspective. American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy, 3, 1-5.
[30]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) On the Treatment Trains for Municipal Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6088.
[31]  Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-Products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.01.010
[32]  Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Ferrate(VI): In Situ Generation and Water Treatment—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 30, 319-332. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.2217
[33]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Alghamdi, A. (2019) Direct Potable Reuse: The Singapore NEWater Project as a Role Model. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5980. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105980
[34]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) Water Treatment Challenges towards Viruses Removal. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6408.
[35]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Solar Treatment in the Core of the New Disinfection Technologies. Chemical Science & Engineering Research, 2, 6-11.
[36]  Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Touahmia, M., Aichouni, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Nanotechnology Phenomena in the Light of the Solar Energy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, 3, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jeece.20180301.11
[37]  Ghaffour, N., Missimer, T.M. and Amy, G.L. (2013) Technical Review and Evaluation of the Economics of Water Desalination: Current and Future Challenges for Better Water Supply Sustainability. Desalination, 309, 197-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2012.10.015
[38]  Voutchkov, N. (2016) Desalination: Past, Present and Future. International Water Association, 17/08/2016. https://iwa-network.org/Desalination,-past-present-future
[39]  Ghernaout, D. and El-Wakil, A. (2017) Requiring Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modifications—An Overview. American Journal of Chemical Engineering, 5, 81-88. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajche.20170504.15
[40]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Reverse Osmosis Process Membranes Modeling—A Historical Overview. Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, 2, 112-122.
[41]  Saiba, A., Kourdali, S., Ghernaout, B. and Ghernaout, D. (2010) In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the Birth of a New Seawater Pretreatment Process: Electrocoagulation—An Overview. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 201-217. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1094
[42]  Ait Messaoudene, N., Naceur, M.W., Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) On the Validation Perspectives of the Proposed Novel Dimensionless Fouling Index. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 116-122. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.07.014
[43]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2010) From Chemical Disinfection to Electrodisinfection: The Obligatory Itinerary? Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 156-175. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1085
[44]  Boucherit, A., Moulay, S., Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) New Trends in Disinfection By-Products Formation upon Water Treatment. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 628833. https://doi.org/10.5171/2015.628833
[45]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Microorganisms’ Electrochemical Disinfection Phenomena. EC Microbiology, 9, 160-169.
[46]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology. Applied Engineering, 3, 71-84.
[47]  Ghernaout, D., El-Wakil, A., Alghamdi, A., Elboughdiri, N. and Mahjoubi, A. (2018) Membrane Post-Synthesis Modifications and How It Came About. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 60-64. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.010
[48]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) New Configurations and Techniques for Controlling Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Fouling. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6579.
[49]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Should We Forbid the Consumption of Antibiotics to Stop the Spread of Resistances in Nature? Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6138.
[50]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.018
[51]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) Control Strategies in Electrodisinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6396. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106396
[52]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Coagulation Process for Removing Algae and Algal Organic Matter—An Overview. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6272. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106272
[53]  Ghernaout, B., Ghernaout, D. and Saiba, A. (2010) Algae and Cyanotoxins Removal by Coagulation/Flocculation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 20, 133-143. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1202
[54]  Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.14
[55]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Dealing with Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Engineering Viewpoints. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6363.
[56]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Eliminating Cyanobacteria and Controlling Algal Organic Matter—Short Notes. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6252. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106252
[57]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6003. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106003
[58]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) On the Other Side of Viruses in the Background of Water Disinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6374.
[59]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Disinfecting Water: Plasma Discharge for Removing Coronaviruses. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6314. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106314
[60]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Al Arni, S. (2020) New Insights towards Disinfecting Viruses—Short Notes. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 10, 173-186. https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2020.050
[61]  Ahmad, N.A., Goh, P.S., Yogarathinam, L.T., Zulhairun, A.K. and Ismail, A.F. (2020) Current Advances in Membrane Technologies for Produced Water Desalination. Desalination, 493, Article ID: 114643. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114643
[62]  Jones, P.H. and Tompeck, M.A. (2006) Water Treatment. In: Pfafflin, J.R. and Ziegler, E.N., Eds., Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering, 5th Edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 1311. https://doi.org/10.1201/NOE0849398438.ch87
[63]  Bermuda, Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans). https://environment.bm/black-mangrove#:~:text=Black%20Mangrove%20(Avicennia%20germinans)&text=If%20you%20look%20closely%20at,that%20would%20kill%20other%20plants
[64]  Laborde, H.M., França, K.B., Neff, H. and Lima, A.M.N. (2001) Optimization Strategy for a Small-Scale Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination, System Based on Solar Energy. Desalination, 133, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00078-9
[65]  Fiorenza, G., Sharma, V.K. and Braccio, G. (2003) Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Solar Powered Water Desalination, Plant. Energy Conversion and Management, 44, 2217-2240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00247-9
[66]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) Electrocoagulation as a Pioneering Separation Technology—Electric Field Role. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6702.
[67]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) Electric Field (EF) in the Core of the Electrochemical (EC) Disinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6587.
[68]  Ghernaout, D. (2020) Water Treatment Coagulation: Dares and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6636.
[69]  Côté, P., Masini, M. and Mourato, D. (2004) Comparison of Membrane Options for Water Reuse and Reclamation. Desalination, 167, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.06.105
[70]  Eke, J., Yusuf, A., Giwa, A. and Sodiq, A. (2020) The Global Status of Desalination: An Assessment of Current Desalination, Technologies, Plants and Capacity. Desalination, 495, Article ID: 114633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2020.114633

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal