OALib Journal
  OALib Journal is an all-in-one open access journal (ISSN Print: 2333-9705, ISSN Online: 2333-9721). It accepts a manuscript for the peer-review processing, typesetting, publication and then allocated to one of the 322 subject areas. The article processing charge for publishing in OALib journal is Only $99. For more details, please contact service@oalib.com. Submit now
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Apr 07, 2021Open    AccessArticle

Energy Sector Status and Hydropower Development in the Eastern Nile Basin

Habtamu Diriba, Fengting Li
Water has historically been used by humans for several purposes, such as power generation, domestic use, and irrigation. However, water management in the Nile Basin and, overall, in Africa faces social, technical, economic, political, and environmental challenges. Energy consumption levels are directly proportional to economic growth and development. The Nile Basin nations have an estimated 140,000 megawatts (MW) of hydropower potential, but a small fraction is exploited except for Egypt. Mainly...
Open Access Library J. Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107338


Jan 20, 2021Open    AccessArticle

Water Scarcity in Kenya: Current Status, Challenges and Future Solutions

Faith Mulwa, Zhuo Li, Fangnon Firmin Fangninou
Growing water demand and water scarcity have turned into a prominent challenge to livelihood in several parts worldwide. Global warming, water pollution, population growth, urbanization, and poor management of water resources have aggravated the issue of the water crisis. Water scarcity is expected to affect socio-economic activities, food security, education, health, and intensity climate change, hereby has caught the attention of the public. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG...
Open Access Library J. Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107096


Nov 27, 2020Open    AccessArticle

An Assessment of the Water, Irrigation, and Food Security by a Fishbone Analysis in Turkey

A. Ahmet Yücer, Feyza Nur Ayhan
The use of water resources is ineffective although Turkey has insufficient freshwater resources. Dry farming is practiced in a large part of agricultural land. This land due to insufficient precipitation throughout the country is left to fallow once in two years. Agricultural drought is becoming a severe challenge for agriculture and food security, and it may also impact the wealth of farmers by agriculture income. So, it causes widespread concern among the rural population. There is a close rel...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106929


Oct 30, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Modeling a Geothermal Field: A Not-Trivial Starter Kit

Luca Meacci
In this paper, we discuss the assumptions, the balances, and the constitutive relationships in order to provide a set of tools for the mathematical modeling of a geothermal system. In particular, we present a model for pressure and saturation supposing that: 1) the geothermal fluid flows in a porous medium, 2) it is composed of pure water, 3) the simultaneous presence of the gaseous (vapor) and liquid phases occurs, and 4) the effects of capillarity action can be introduced.
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106836


Oct 29, 2020Open    AccessArticle

How Does Adaptive Governance Help Restore and Protect Shared Waters?

Gail Krantzberg, Zilin Song
When watersheds span multiple administrative jurisdictions, ensuring the equitable division of responsibility, conflict resolutions and information sharing are all needed to achieve ecological balance, economic development, and social security. Under socio-ecological conditions full of uncertainties, diverse participating groups and multiple perspectives on resource threats need to be involved. Adaptive governance as a theory refers to the structures and processes by which people can address suc...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106833


Jul 14, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Unregulated Hand Dug Wells and Their Quality Threat: A Case Study in Cape Coast Metropolis

Albert Ebo Duncan, Michael Oteng Peprah, Martha Osei Marfo
In Ghana, using hand-dug wells whose quality has not been scientifically assessed is a common practice. All the hand-dug wells in Abura and its environs where this study took place have not been scientifically assessed; however, they are being used for domestic activities including drinking. In all, 128 water samples were collected from 20 hand-dug wells in the Abura community. Sixteen physical, chemical, and microbial parameters namely pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, conductivity, total ...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106482


Jun 04, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Stratigraphy and Fluoride Levels Variation in Borehole Water: A Case of River Njoro Catchment

George M. Ontumbi, Thomas M. Munyao, Elias K. Ucakuwun
Boreholes are main sources of water for human use in the Rift Valley. However these boreholes have fluoride levels higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels of 1.5 mg/l and consequently have raised serious health issues. This study sought to determine the relationship between borehole stratigraphy and fluoride levels in ground water in river Njoro catchment. This study adopted purposive longitudinal survey. The study adopted descriptive analysis of the borehole stratigra...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106388


Apr 23, 2020Open    AccessArticle

The Effects of Crude Oil Production Activities on Surface and Groundwater Quality in Sapele, Delta State, Nigeria

Anthony E. Ogbeibu, Samuel E. Akpogheneta, Musa M. Zagi
The crude oil industry in Nigeria remains a major source of revenue and foreign exchange. However, oil exploration and production activities have the potential of causing a lot of distortions in the environment, affecting the ecosystems and human life. The purpose of this study is to assess the physicochemical status of surface and groundwater in Sapele, Delta State, a region that has witnessed oil exploration and production activities. In carrying out this study, water samples were collected mo...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106245


Feb 04, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Strategies for Reducing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrocoagulation

Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
During the last three decades, the electrocoagulation (EC) process has known an exemplary renaissance in the field of water and wastewater treatment. Sev-eral researchers focused on applying this electrochemical technology in re-moving diverse pollutants such as pathogens and organic matters. During EC application, the hazards of formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) are more and more proved especially in water containing organic mat-ter and
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Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106076


Jan 10, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Is Not It Time to Stop Using Chlorine for Treating Water?

Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Chlorine is largely used as a disinfectant in the water and wastewater treatment industries through the world despite the fact that is greatly poisonous for hu-man beings. Its toxicity is more extended to generating disinfection by-products during its microorganisms’ killing and action on organic matter present in water. More importantly, recent studies proved the potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic res
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Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106007


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