OALib Journal
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Nov 24, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Desalination in the Context of Water Scarcity Crisis: Dares & Perspectives

Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Throughout the world, providing drinking water via desalination engineering becomes a more and more adopted option. With quickly progressing desalination engineering and market maturation, desalination prices are fast dropping, and the ecological effects of desalination are steadily relieved. Even if desalination is probably to stay more costly in nearly all areas than conventional water provision solutions, it could turn into progressively a solution to satisfy inevitable deficiencies for parti...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106963


Oct 09, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Study on the Influence of Saturated Aliphatic Dicarboxylic Acids on the Solubility of Their Norfloxacin Salts

Lihua Zhu, Dong Huang, Chengjun Jiang
The crystallization of norfloxacin, an antibacterial fluoroquinolone compound, with different saturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acids yields five novel pharmaceutical salts via molecular recognition. In particular, a new norfloxacin-glutaric acid salt was obtained, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The effect of pKa on the solubility and dissolution profile of drug salts are investigated in pure water. After the formation of salts, the solubility incre...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106650


Sep 29, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Desalination Engineering: Environmental Impacts of the Brine Disposal and Their Control

Djamel Ghernaout
Freshwater supplies remain more and more in lack corresponding to the increased demand for several human activities. Such difficult circumstances make desalination of saline water an obligation. Desalination to take out water from saline water has been proved as a safe non-traditional water supply. Nevertheless, like any human-founded method, desalination has conducted to several influences on nature. Charged with chemical products, brine is discharged back to nature. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emi...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106777


Sep 17, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Natural Organic Matter Removal in the Context of the Performance of Drinking Water Treatment Processes—Technical Notes

Djamel Ghernaout
Natural organic matter (NOM) is a very complicated mixture of organic compounds and is detected in all groundwater and surface waters. Besides NOM has a direct effect on health, it touches the performance of drinking water treatment processes (DWTPs) and so the safety of potable water. NOM may also disturb consumer satisfaction since it could participate in undesirable colors, tastes, and odors in potable water. This work aims to provide an insight into the effects of NOM on the global quality o...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106751


Aug 28, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Electrocoagulation as a Pioneering Separation Technology—Electric Field Role

Djamel Ghernaout
Electrocoagulation (EC) is a very efficient process in dealing with effluent streams and separating complicated contaminants prior to the discharge of the treated water. Attention to such a technique augmented thanks to its large set of utilizations, zero—or minimal—chemical dosing demands, low waste formation, and low price. EC appears as an efficacious option to traditional water treatment techniques for the separation of a large collection of contaminants. This work examines the theories of t...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106702


Aug 26, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Demobilizing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Electrochemical Technology: New Insights

Djamel Ghernaout
Taking into account its merits in terms of high efficiency and low energy consumption, electrochemical (EC) technology especially bioelectrochemical system (BES) has been applied largely in reducing different antibiotics from wastewater. BES averts the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via forming less quantity of sludge compared with wastewater treatment plants. Nevertheless, transmembrane permeability and membrane potential could be influenced by the electrical stimulation, conducti...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106685


Aug 14, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Water Treatment Coagulation: Dares and Trends

Djamel Ghernaout
Coagulation remains a technique by which finely dispersed solids are efficiently eliminated. It has been largely expanded and remains the most unavoidable method for treating water. This review focuses on colloid stability, coagulation mechanisms, and coagulant types. It presents electrocoagulation as an option of conventional coagulation and discusses challenges in coagulation technology especially health hazards in used chemicals toxicity. As promising solutions, new developments in terms of u...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106636


Jul 28, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Electric Field (EF) in the Core of the Electrochemical (EC) Disinfection

Djamel Ghernaout
Killing pathogens by different electrochemical (EC) disinfection means has been largely reported in the literature, even if the influence of process variables and reactor conception on kill performance has not been well comprehended. This review concentrates on EC microbial killing mechanisms especially the free radicals’ contribution and the effect of the electric field (EF), which are by their nature poisonous to microbes. Some mechanisms have been suggested to interpret the deadliness of EC a...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106587


Jul 28, 2020Open    AccessArticle

New Configurations and Techniques for Controlling Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Fouling

Djamel Ghernaout
At the worldwide level, with numerous full-scale plants dealing with urban and industrial wastewater, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process is viewed as a fully developed technique. Nevertheless, membrane fouling constitutes a critical barrier in the larger diffusion of MBR application. This work aims to discuss the new research and development progresses in the MBR technology in terms of fouling mitigation. New arrangements are examined to enhance the comprehension of the latest achievements in...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106579


Jul 17, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Enhanced Coagulation: Promising Findings and Challenges

Djamel Ghernaout
The coagulation process remains one of the fundamental treatment techniques for treating water and wastewater. Enhancing the coagulation process is more and more a popular research topic. This work focuses on the implementation of chemical oxidation-enhanced coagulation (EC). It also discusses distinguished findings and innovations of EC and its main dares and trends. Pre-oxidation remains widely employed in dealing with water carrying algae and ameliorates coagulation by breaking the organic co...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106569


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